Growth of national income
Although the total production of food grains has increased from 51 million tonnes in 1951 to 260
million tonnes in 2011-12, the population has also increased from 361 million to 1210 million. Thus, the per capita availability of food grains increased from 395 grams to 463 grams signifying a very small increase in per capita availability. As compared to increasing demand for food, the per capita availability of food grains is insufficient. Per capita availability of cultivable area is coming down gradually. So, a falling land-man ratio has to be compensated by an increase in productivity per acre, which is 0.17 hectare per capita.
In India, there is a high burden of non- productive/ unproductive consumers on the total population. Unproductive consumers refer to the age group of less than 15 and above 64. Around 37% population is under this age group. This implies that 63% of the population is in the age group 15-64. An increase in the ratio of unproductive consumers places additional burden on the resources of the family as well as public utility services like education, health, etc.
A substantial increase in population creates the problem of unemployment and under-employment. In spite of an increase in employment opportunities, higher growth of population still renders about 10% of the labour force unemployed.
Generally, a part of the capital formation goes in maintaining the existing standard of living for the additional population. Therefore, for any improvement in the standard of living, the capital investment has to be very large.
The ecological balance in India is upset due to rapid growth in population. Deforestation leads to soil erosion and floods which have an adverse effect on food production and unfavourable climatic conditions which leads to prolonged droughts, global warming, etc. Increased pressure on agricultural lands leads to depletion of natural soil fertility, increase in alkalinity and salinity of soils. High concentration of population in urban areas, together with inadequate infrastructural facilities is a major cause of pollution.