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Adjective

Definition

An adjective is a word that describes, identifies, modifies, or quantifies something (a noun or a pronoun). It describes in two ways—attributive and predicative.

 

Attributive

When adjective comes with the noun it is attributive use. For example, The black pen is kept on the table.

 

Predicative

When adjective comes in the predicate of the sentence. For example, The pen is black.

Types Of Adjective

  1. Adjectives of Quality
  2. Adjectives of Quantity
  3. Adjectives of number
  4. Demonstrative
  5. Interrogative
  6. Emphasising
  7. Exclamatory Adjective
  8. Distributive
  9. Possessive
  10. Proper

Adjective of Quality

It describes the quality of a noun. For example,

  1. Agra is a famous city.
  2. Mohan is an intelligent man.

Adjectives of Quantity

It describes the Quantity. For example,

  1. I do not know much about him.
  2. You have to show much patience.
  3. This is no reply.
  4. There is a little tea in this cup.

Adjectives of Number (Numeral Adjectives)

A numeral adjective tells how many persons or things are being referred to. For example, Five fingers, Dozen eggs. There are mainly two types of numeral adjective, i.e., definite, and indefinite.
 

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Definite Numeral Adjectives

It is used for definite numerals, e.g., one, two, three ... or first, second, third ...

Exact numbers (one, two, three ...) are called cardinals first, second, third are called ordinals as they denote orders.


Indefinite Numeral Adjectives

It denotes the indefinite numbers. For example, some, many, few, most, etc.

  • Many ladies are coming to meet me.
  • Most boys are intelligent.

Demonstrative Adjective

It points out or indicates a person or thing.

It is indicates a definite noun, it is called definite demonstrative adjective. For example,

  • This gentleman is intelligent.
  • Those chairs are broken.
  • These books are unabridged.
  • That girl is beautiful.

It is indicates an indefinite noun, it is called indefinite demonstrative adjective. For example,

  • Some Mr John is coming to meet you.

Interrogative Adjective

It is used to ask question. For example,

  • Which chain is yours?
  • Whose book is this?

Emphasizing Adjective

When ‘own’ ‘very’ comes before noun, it works as emphasising adjective. For example,

  • This is the very book I purchased yesterday.   
  • I washed all the utensils with my own hand.

Exclamatory Adjective

‘What’ is sometimes used to denote surprise. It is then called as exclamatory adjective. For example,

  • What a make-up!
  • What an idea!

Distributive Adjective: It is used to distribute the noun. For example, either, neither, each, every.


Possessive Adjective: 
It shows the possession of a noun. For example, my, our, your, his, her.


Proper Adjective: 
It is formed from proper noun. For example, Indian, Chinese, Australian, Japanese.

 

Rules

  1. ‘Some’ and ‘Any’ both are related to amount, but their use is different.
     
    Some is used for singular uncountable noun or plural countable noun in an affirmative sentence. Any is used in negative or interrogative sentence.
  2. Much/Many—much is used for quantity for singular uncountable noun. Many is used to denote number for plural countable noun.
  3. Few/a few/the few:
     
    Few is used to mean negligible.
     
    A few is used to mean ‘small number’.
     
    The few is used to mean ‘all the things and the things are little in number’.
  4. Other/Another:
     
    Other means, the remaining. For example,
  • The other students are playing football.

Another means, an additional.

An + other = Another

I want another book

Note that ‘an another’ is wrong.


Degree of Comparison

There are three types of degrees of comparison, i.e., positive, comparative, and superlative degree.


Positive Degree

The positive degree denotes the mere existence of quality.


Comparative Degree

It shows comparison between degree.


Two nouns (person, place or thing). This comparison is shown as follows:

  1. Mohan is better than Ram.
  2. Mohan is better of the two boys.
  3. Radha is taller than I.
  4. Radha is taller of the two girls.

Superlative Degree

It shows the highest degree of quality. For example,

  • Sushant is the most intelligent boy in the class.   
  • He is wisest of all the three teachers.

Rules

  1. Generally -es is added to the positive degree to make comparative degree and -est is added to the positive degree to make superlative degree. For example,

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Tall

Taller

Tallest

High

Higher

Highest

Poor

Poorer

Poorest

Long

Longer

Longest

Wide

Wider

Widest

  1. If a word ends with -e, only -r or -st is added to make comparative and superlative respectively. For example,

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Fine

Finer

Finest

Able

Abler

Ablest/most able

Noble

Nobler

Noblest

True

Truer

Truest

  1. If a word ends with consonantly its comparative and superlative is made by removing s and adding -ier and -iest respectively. For example,

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Easy

Easier

Easiest

Lazy

Lazier

Laziest

Dry

Dries

Driest

Holy

Holier

Holiest

Happy

Happier

Happiest

  1. If a word ends with -y, its comparative and superlative degree is made by adding -es and -est respectively. For example,

Gray

Grayer

Grayest

  1. Certain adjectives have no rule. For example,

Good

Better

Best

Well

Better

Best

Bad

Worse

Worst

  1. An adjective (with two or more than two syllables) of positive degree are connected into comparative and superlative degree by adding more and most respectively as follows:

Difficult

More Difficult

Most difficult

Intelligent

More Intelligent

Most Intelligent

  1. There are certain latin adjectives (Junior, Senior, Interior, Superior, Posterior, Prior, Anterior) which are used as comparative degree and they are follow by ‘to’ and not ‘than’. For example,
  •   John is junior to all his brothers.
  •   Ram is senior to Mohan.
  1. There are certain adjectives (Minor, major, interior, exterior, ulterior) which used as only positive adjective. For example,
  •   This was a major operation.
  •   The interior decoration was excellent.





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