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Noun

Definition

A ‘noun’ is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing and abstract idea.

  • Person as George
  • Place as Agra
  • Animal as dog
  • Thing as book
  • Quality as honesty
  • Condition as freshness
  • Action as movement

Types Of Noun

 

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As is clear from the chart given above, noun is divided into two major groups—Countable and Uncountable.

 

Countable Noun :-

The noun which can be counted. For example,

  • Table, Girl, College, etc.

Common Noun

The name of a person, place, thing, etc. in the general sense, i.e., a name common to every person, place or thing of the same group. For example,

  • Person—Girl, Boy, Man, Woman   
  • Place—City, Country, School, Hotel
  • Thing—Chair, Table, Pen, Book

Proper Noun

The noun which denotes a particular person, place or thing. For example,

  • Person—Jimmy, Lily, Vinay
  • Place—Agra, Canada, America
  • Thing—Ramayana, Nokia

Collective Noun

The noun which denotes a collection of person, place, animal or thing, etc. For example,

  • A herd of cattle
  • A cluster of stars
  • A series of events
  • A flock of birds
  • A suit of rooms
  • A pile of books
  • A chain of mountains
  • A band of musicians
  • A heap of sand
  • A bunch of keys
  • A fleet of ships
  • A stock of ships
  • A stock of clothes
  • A lock of hair
  • A heap of dust
  • A ray of light
  • A crew of sailors  A caravan of merchants
  • A conference of delegates  An alliance of states
  • An anthology of poems
  • An album of stamps
  • An archive of public records

Uncountable Noun

The nouns which can not be counted. For example, Silver, Oil, Tea, Honesty.

Uncountable nouns are of two types—Material noun, Abstract noun.

 

Material Noun

As is clear with the name, this noun is used for materials. For example, Gold, Bronze, Wine, Coffee, Wood, etc.

 

Abstract Noun

It refers the name of action, quality or state. For example,


Action
Hatred Laughter Pleasure
Offence Growth Discovery
Destruction Delivery Decision
Consumption Practice Behaviour
Arrival Speech Objection

 

Quality

 

Honesty Politeness Width
Bravery Kindness Cowardice
Patriotism Selfishness Courage
Heroism Patience Confidence
Slanery Strength Absence
Royalty Truth Abundance
Richness Ignorance Accuracy
Privacy Might Death
Difference Fertility Heat
Health Importance Length
Nationality Beauty Pride
Poverty Modesty Wisdom
Weakness Cruelty Innocence
Narration Departure Creation

 

State
 

Young Motherhood Childhood
Manhood Babyhood Dictatorship
Manhood Ownership Womanhood
Widowhood Infancy  

Noun: Number

There are two numbers—Singular and Plural.

 

Singular

When we speak about one person and one thing, we use the noun in singular form. Single means ‘one’.


Plural

When we speak about more than one person and one thing, we use the noun in plural form. Plural means ‘many’. For example,

 

Singular

Plural

Book

Books

Table

Tables

Dog

Dogs

Shirt

Shirts

 

Rules with Examples


Rule 1: 
In general ‘s’ is added to the singular. For example,

Singular

Plural

Boy

Boys

Fan

Fans

Skirt

Skirts

Horse

Horses

Cow

Cows

Kite

Kites

 

Rule 2: Nouns with s, sh, ch, x at the end becomes plural by adding -es. For example,

Singular

Plural

Class

Classes

Bus

Buses

Branch

Branches

Bush

Bushes

Watch

Watches

Church

Churches

Box

Boxes

Coach

Coaches

 

Rule 3: Most nouns with ‘O’ at their and becomes plural by adding -es. For example,

Singular

Plural

Potato

Potatoes

Mango

Mangoes

Hero

Heroes

Cargo

Cargoes

Mosquito

Mosquitoes

Exceptions

Piano

Pianos

Kilo

Kilos

Photo

Photos

Logo

Logos

Memento

Mementos

Ratio

Ratios

 

Rule 4: Nouns ending in consonant +y becomes plural by replacing ‘y’ for ‘ies’. For example,

Singular

Plural

Baby

Babies

City

Cities

Army

Armies

Story

Stories

Dictionary

Dictionaries

 

Rule 5: Certain nouns ending in -for -fe become their plural by replacing -f or -fe for -ves. For example,

Singular

Plural

Thief

Thieves

Half

Halves

Loaf

Loaves

Self

Selves

Life

Lives

Knife

Knives

Exception

Belief

Beliefs

Proof

Proofs

Chief

Chiefs

Roof

Roofs

Gulf

Gulfs

Turf

Turfs

 

Rule 6: A few nouns become plural by changing the inside vowel of the word. For example,

Singular

Plural

Man

Men

Woman

Women

Foot

Feet

Mouse

Mice

 

Rule 7: A compound noun becomes by adding -s to its main word. For example,

Singular

Plural

Passes-by

Passers-by

Sister-in-law

Sisters-in-law

Bed-room

Bed-rooms

Commander-in-chief

Commanders-in-chief

 

Rule 8: Certain nouns are taken from foreign languages along with their plurals. For example,

Singular

Plural

Index

Indices

Radians

Radii

Crisis

Crises

Basis

Bases

Formula

Formulae

Thesis

Theses

Datum

Data

Analysis

Analyses

 

Rule 9: Certain Nouns have two types of plurals, each with different meaning. For example,

  1. Cloth:
  • Clothes means garments.
  • Cloths means pieces of cloth.
  1. Brother:
  • Brothers—sons of the same parents.
  • Brother—members of a society.

Rule 10: Certain nouns carry one meaning in singular and more than one, generally two, in plural. For example,

  1. Custom:
  • Customs—habits
  • Customs—import duties
  1. Premise:
  • Premises—campus
  • Premises—propositions

Noun: Case

On the basis of performance of noun (or pronoun) in a sentence, it may be categorized as follows:

  1. Nominative case
  2. Objective case
  3. Possessive case
  4. Vocative case
  5. Complement of the verb
  6. Case in apposition

Nominative Case

When a noun or pronoun is used as the subject of the verb, it is placed in the nominative case. For example,

  • John writes a column.
  • Sunil is playing cricket.
  • He is moving towards me.

In all the sentences given above, the underlined words (Noun or Pronoun) are used as the subject of the verb. Thus, they are in nominative case.

 

Objective Case

When a noun or pronoun is used as the object of the verb, it is placed in the objective case. For example,

  • He plays chess.
  • George wrote a letter.
  • You love her.

In the sentences given above the underlined words (noun or pronoun) are used as the object of the verb. Thus, they are in objective case.


Possessive Case

When a noun shows its possession or ownership, it is known as the possessive case. For example,

  • He is Hari’s father.
  • This is the top of the table.

In the sentences given above the underlined words are in the possessive case.

 

Possessive Case (Some Rules)

  1. ‘s’ is added to a singular noun in a possessive case. For example,
  • The girl’s bag.
  • The Queen’s chair.
  1. Plural noun ending in -s keeps only an apostrophe and plural noun not ending in -s keeps ‘s’ in the possessive case. For example,

  192915.png

  192922.png

  1. When two nouns are in intact form, possessive is used with the second noun. For example,
  • Ram and Shyam’s shop
  1. Use apostrophe in the following cases:
    1. Living things.
    2. In case of personification.
    3. Time, space or weight.
    4. In case of certain phrases.
    5. At the end of hyphenated phrases.

Vocative Case

When a noun is used to address something, it is known as a noun in vocative case. For example,

  • Suresh, come here.
  • Students, don’t make noise.

Complement of the Verb

It is divided into two parts:

  1. Subjective complements
  2. Objective complements

For example,

  • Sudhir became an actor.
  • Radhika seems sad.
  • I appointed Mohan as supervisor.
  • We call him ‘Raju’.

In the sentence number 1 and 2 the underlined words are subjective complements as these words supplement the subject. In the sentence number 3 and 4 the underlined words are objective complements as these words supplement the object.

 

Case in Apposition

The literal meaning of Apposition is ‘placing near’. The noun which follows another noun to explain is to be called in Apposition. For example,

  • Tulsidas, a great poet, was not bachelor.
  • Mr John, a cardiac surgeon, came to meet me.
     
    Here, the underlined phrases are in Apposition.

Noun: Gender

Gender is a system of noun classification. A common gender classification includes masculine and feminine categories. Masculine nouns are words for men, boys and male animals. Feminine nouns are words for women, girls and female animals.
 

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Masculine Gender

It denotes male sex. For example, Dog, King, Father, Boy, etc.

 

Feminine Gender

It denotes female sex. For example, Heroine, Queen, Mother, Girl, etc.

 

Common Gender

It denotes either male or female. For example, Parent, Cousin, Child, Pupil, Student, etc.

 

Neuter Gender

It denotes neither male nor female. For example, Mountain, Tree, Pen, Room, Booklet, etc.

List of Important Genders

 

Masculine

Feminine

Bachelor

Spinster

Monk

Nun

Bridegroom

Bride

Lad

Lass

Lover

Beloved

Wizard

Witch

Gander

Goose

Earl

Countess

Heir

Heiress

Host

Hostess

Patron

Patroness

Priest

Priestess

Benefactor

Benefactor

Duke

Duchess

Testator

Testatrix

Czar

Czarina

Drone

Bee

Stallion

Mare

Tutor

Governess





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