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Covalent Bond

A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms, each atom contributing one electron to the shared pair. The shared pair of electrons should have opposite spins, and they are localized between the two nuclei concerned. The difference between the electronegativities of the combining atoms is less than two.
For example, formation of the hydrogen molecule, formation of hydrogen fluoride, formation of water, formation of ammonia, formation of carbon tetrachloride, formation of methane, and formation of ethane.

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