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Transition from Ionic to Covalent Bond: Fajans' Rule

Just as a covalent bond may have partial ionic character, an ionic bond may also show a certain degree of covalent character. When two oppositely charged ions approach each other closely, the cation will attract the electrons in the outer shell of the anion and simultaneously repel its nucleus. This produces distortion or polarization of the anion, which is accompanied by some sharing of electrons between the ions, i.e., the bond acquires a certain covalent character.

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