Holes In Semiconductors
When an electron is removed from a covalent bond, it leaves a vacancy behind. An electron from a neighboring atom can move into this vacancy, leaving the neighbour with a vacancy. In this way, the vacancy formed is called hole (or cotter) and can travel through the material and serve as an additional current carriers.
- A hole is considered as a seat of positive charge, having magnitude of charge equal to that of an electron.
- Holes act as virtual charge, although there is no physical charge on it.
- Effective mass of hole is more than electron.
- Mobility of hole is less than electron.