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Hyperconjugation

This effect takes place only when a saturated carbon with a H-atom is linked to an unsaturated carbon. This involves the conjugation between σ-electrons of a single carbon–hydrogen bond and the π-electron of the adjacent multiple bond.
 
Description: 39749.png
 
Hyperconjugation is also possible in alkenes and alkyl arenes.
 
For example, for propene, it can be shown as follows:
 
Description: 39780.png
 
The hyperconjugation effect in toluene (methyl benzene) can be shown as follows:
 
Description: 39766.png
 
This helps us in predicting the o/p directing influence of CH3 towards electrophilic substitution. The hyperconjugation in alkyl groups is classified as +H, while trichloromethyl is classified as –H effect. This explains the m-directing nature of –CCl3 group.




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