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This effect takes place only when a saturated carbon with a H-atom is linked to an unsaturated carbon. This involves the conjugation between σ-electrons of a single carbon–hydrogen bond and the π-electron of the adjacent multiple bond.
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Hyperconjugation is also possible in alkenes and alkyl arenes.
For example, for propene, it can be shown as follows:
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The hyperconjugation effect in toluene (methyl benzene) can be shown as follows:
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This helps us in predicting the o/p directing influence of CH3 towards electrophilic substitution. The hyperconjugation in alkyl groups is classified as +H, while trichloromethyl is classified as –H effect. This explains the m-directing nature of –CCl3 group.

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