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IUPAC Rules for Naming Organic Compounds Containing One or More Functional Groups

The rules for naming an organic compound containing functional groups are exactly same as discussed already for compounds containing double and triple bonds. In this case, the preference of lowest number is given to carbon atom bearing the functional group. The rules are summarized as follows:
  1. Select the longest continuous chain containing the carbon atom having functional group(s).
  2. The numbering of atoms in the parent chain is done in such a way that carbon atom bearing the functional group gets the lowest number.
  3. It two or more same functional groups are present, these are indicated by using di, tri, tetra as prefixed to the name of the functional group.
  4. If the organic compound contains a functional group, multiple bonds, side chain, or substituents, the following order of preference must be followed:
     
    Functional group > Double bond > Triple bond > Side chain
  5. When an organic compound contains two or more functional groups, one group is regarded as the principal functional group and the other group is treated as the secondary functional group, which may be treated as substituent(s).
The following order of preference is used for selecting the principal functional group.
 
Sulphonic acids > Carboxylic acids > Acid anhydrides > Esters > Acid chlorides > Amides > Nitriles > Aldehydes > Ketones > Alcohols > Amines > Imines > Ethers > Alkenes > Alkynes
 
Different classes of functional groups including multiple bonded compounds and the suffix or prefix required to name these compounds are given in the preferential decreasing order in Table.
 
Class of compounds
Functional group or substituent
Suffix
Prefix
1. Sulphonic acids
Description: 40080.png
Sulphonic acid
2. Carboxylic acids
Description: 40090.png
Carboxylic acid/oic acid
carboxy
3. Acid anhydrides
Description: 40100.png
oic anhydride
……
4. Esters
Description: 40108.png
(R) … carboxylate/
(R) ….oate
alkoxy carbonyl
5. Acid halides
Description: 40116.png
Carbonyl halide/
oyl halide
halo carbonyl
6. Amides
Description: 40124.png
Carboxamide/amide
carbamoyl
7. Cyanides
C N
Carbonitrile/nitrile
cyano
8. Aldehydes
Description: 40134.png
Carbaldehyde/al
formyl/oxo
9. Ketones
Description: 40144.png
one
keto/oxo
10. Alcohols
OH
ol
hydroxyl
11. Amines
 NH2
amine
amino
12. Imines
NH
imine
imino
13. Ethers
Description: 40160.png
……
alkoxy
14. Alkenes
 (double bond)
ene
……
15. Alkynes
 (triple bond)
yne
……
 
For those functionalities which have two prefixes and/or suffixes, the first one is used when carbon atom of the functional group is not a part of the longest continuous chain, and the second one is used when carbon atom is counted in the longest chain.




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