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Gravitational Field

The space surrounding a material body in which gravitational force of attraction can be experienced is called its gravitational field.
 
Gravitational field intensity The intensity of the gravitational field of a material body at any point in its field is defined as the force experienced by a unit mass (test mass) placed at that point, provided the unit mass (test mass) itself does not produce any change in the field of the body.
 
47321.png
Fig. 5
 
So if a test mass m at a point in a gravitational field experiences a force 46452.png, as shown in Fig. 5, then 46446.png
 
Intensity of gravitational field
46440.png
∴ 46434.png

Gravitational Field Intensity for Different Bodies

Intensity due to uniform solid sphere
 
Outside the surface
r > R
On the surface
r = R
Inside the surface
r < R
46420.png
46414.png
46408.png


46426.png
Fig. 6

​Intensity due to spherical shell
 
Outside the surface
r > R
On the surface
r = R
Inside the surface
r < R
46389.png 
46383.png 
I = 0
 
46395.png
Fig. 7

Intensity due to uniform circular ring
 
At a point on its axis
At the center of the ring
46364.png
I = 0
 
46370.png
Fig. 8




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