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Elements of Earth’s magnetic field

The magnitude and direction of the magnetic field of the earth at a place are completely given by certain quantities known as magnetic elements.

Magnetic declination (θ)

It is the angle between geographic and magnetic meridian planes (Fig. 19).
Fig. 19
Declination at a place is expressed at θ°E or θ°E depending upon whether the north pole of the compass needle lies to the east or to the west of the geographical axis.

Angle of inclination or dip (φ)

It is the angle between the direction of intensity of total magnetic field of earth and a horizontal line in the magnetic meridian.
Horizontal component of Earth’s magnetic field (BH): Earth’s magnetic field is horizontal only at the magnetic equator. At any other place, the total intensity can be resolved into horizontal component (BH) and vertical component (BV).

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