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Some Important Points

  • A measurement of a physical quantity is said to be accurate if the systematic error in its measurement is relatively very low. On the other hand, the measurement of a physical quantity is said to be precise if the random error is small.
  • Errors are always additive in nature.
  • For greater accuracy, the quantity with higher power should have least error.
  • Absolute error is not dimensionless quantity.
  • Relative error is dimensionless quantity.
  • Least count
     
    30879.png
  • Least count of vernier callipers
     
    30875.png
     
     Least count of vernier callipers
     
    = 1 MSD ­– 1 VSD
     
    where MSD = Main scale division
     
    VSD = Vernier scale division
  • Least count of screw guaze
     
    30587.png
  • Smaller the least count, higher is the accuracy of measurement.
  • Larger the number of significant figures after the decimal in a measurement, higher is the accuracy of measurement.
  • Significant figures do not change if we measure a physical quantity in different units.
  • When we add or subtract two measured quantities, the absolute error in the final result is equal to the sum of the absolute errors in the measured quantities.
  • When we multiply or divide two measured quantities, the relative error in the final result is equal to the sum of the relative errors in the measured quantities.




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