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Real and Apparent Depth

If object and observer are situated in different medium then due to refraction, object appears to be displaced from its real position.
When object is in denser medium and observer is in rarer medium
  • 113252.png
  • Real depth > Apparent depth
  • Shift 113258.png
Fig. 15
When object is in rarer medium and observer is in denser medium
Fig. 16
  • μ = h/h
  • Real depth < Apparent depth
  • d = (μ – 1)h

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