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  • Thermodynamic process: It is an operation by which a system undergoes a change from one state to another.
  • Isothermal process: ΔT = 0 and also ΔE = 0,
  • Adiabatic process: δQ = 0
  • Isochoric process: ΔV = 0
  • Isobaric process: ΔP = 0
  • Cyclic process: ΔE = 0 and also ΔH = 0.
  • Reversible process: A process in which the driving force is infinitesimally greater than the opposing force is called reversible process.
  • Irreversible process: A process in which direction cannot be altered by small changes in variables such as P, V, and T is called irreversible process.
  • State functions or state variables: Those fundamental properties which determine the state of a system are called state variables or state functions or thermodynamic parameters. The change in the state properties is dependent on the initial and final states of the system and not on the path followed.
    State variables that are commonly used to describe the state of the thermodynamic system are as follows:
    • Pressure (P)
    • Volume (V)
    • Temperature (T)
    • Internal energy (E)
    • Enthalpy (H)
    • Entropy (S)
    • Free energy (G)
    • Number of moles (n)
  • Relation between ΔH and ΔE: ΔH = ΔE + PΔV

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