Imagine that we stand on any ordinary seaside pier, and watch the waves rolling in and striking against the iron columns of the pier. Large waves pay very little attention to the columns—they divide right and left and re-unite after passing each column, much as a regiment of soldiers would if a tree stood in their way; it is almost as though the columns had not been there. But the short waves and ripples find the columns of the pier a much more formidable obstacle. When the short waves impinge on the columns, they are reflected back and spread as new ripples in all directions. To use the technical term, they are “scattered.” The obstacle provided by the iron columns hardly affects the long waves at all, but scatters the short ripples.
We have been watching a working model of the way in which sunlight struggles through the earth’s atmosphere. Between us on earth and outer space the atmosphere interposes innumerable obstacles in the form of molecules of air, tiny droplets of water, and small particles of dust. They are represented by the columns of the pier.
The waves of the sea represent the sunlight. We know that sunlight is a blend of lights of many colors—as we can prove for ourselves by passing it through a prism, or even through a jug of water, or as Nature demonstrates to us when she passes it through the raindrops of a summer shower and produces a rainbow. We also know that light consists of waves, and that the different colors of light are produced by waves of different lengths, red light by long waves and blue light by short waves. The mixture of waves which constitutes sunlight has to struggle through the obstacles it meets in the atmosphere, just as the mixture of waves at the seaside has to struggle past the columns of the pier. And these obstacles treat the light waves much as the columns of the pier treat the sea-waves. The long waves which constitute red light are hardly affected, but the short waves which constitute blue light are scattered in all directions.
Thus, the different constituents of sunlight are treated in different ways as they struggle through the earth’s atmosphere. A wave of blue light may be scattered by a dust particle, and turned out of its course. After a time a second dust particle again turns it out of its course, and so on, until finally it enters our eyes by a path as zigzag as that of a flash of lightning. Consequently, the blue waves of the sunlight enter our eyes from all directions. And that is why the sky looks blue.
I. Light meets more obstacles when passing parallel to the earth’s surface than when traveling perpendicular. Consequently, even red light is diffused. II. The blue light may not make it through the denser pathway of the evening sky, leaving only the long light waves of red. III. The short red light waves have more energy and are the only waves that can make it through the thick atmosphere of the evening sky.
We all know that when there is a clear sky, the western sky appears red as the sun sets. From the information presented in the passage, this phenomenon would seem to be explained by which of the following?
I. Light meets more obstacles when passing parallel to the earth’s surface than when traveling perpendicular. Consequently, even red light is diffused.
II. The blue light may not make it through the denser pathway of the evening sky, leaving only the long light waves of red.
III. The short red light waves have more energy and are the only waves that can make it through the thick atmosphere of the evening sky.