John receives one grade for each of the following six courses: economics, geology, history, Italian, physics, and Russian. From highest to lowest, the possible grades are A, B, C, D, and E. E is the only failing grade. Two letter grades are consecutive if and only if they are adjacent in the alphabet.
John’s grades in geology and physics are consecutive.
His grades in Italian and Russian are consecutive.
He receives a higher grade in economics than in history.
He receives a higher grade in geology than in physics.
If John passes all his courses and receives a higher grade in geology than in either language, which one of the following must be true?