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Unwarranted Assumptions

When analyzing a game, you must not only take the meaning of the words literally but you must also take the meaning of the sentences literally. That is, do not make any unwarranted assumptions about what a condition implies.
 
For example, if the setup to a problem states that five people are standing in a line and a condition states that Craig is standing behind Jane, then you cannot assume he is immediately behind her. There may be one or more people between them.
 
For another example, take the word “never” in the sentence “Jane never arrives at work before Kelly.” Based on this statement we cannot assume that Kelly always arrives before Jane: they may on occasion arrive at the same time. For a more subtle example, take the sentence “John will go only if Steve goes.” We cannot assume that if Steve goes, then John will go too. The sentence implies only that if John left, then Steve must also have left, not necessarily vice versa.
 
The last two sections are not intended to imply that you should dwell on minutia. Instead, they should alert you to pay attention to the exact meanings of words and sentences. Words are used in their literal sense, not to make the conditions “tricky,” but to avoid ambiguity.

Unwarranted Assumptions Drill

 
Directions: Each condition in this exercise is followed by a series of deductions. Determine whether each deduction is valid or invalid.
 

Questions

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