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Biological Sciences

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The Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems

Question
4 out of 10
 

After glucose is absorbed by the small intestine, it is transported to the liver, where many “decisions” are made regarding its fate. These decisions are hormonally effected, and include release of some glucose into the blood, storage of some as glycogen, and conversion of some to fat.

The hormones insulin and glucagon are produced by the pancreas; insulin is produced in response to high blood sugar, as after a meal, and tells body cells to take up glucose from the blood, while notifying the liver to store or convert any excess. Glucagon targets the liver when blood sugar is low, telling it to break down some glycogen and release it into the blood as glucose. The interaction of these hormones acts like a thermostat to maintain a relatively constant blood glucose concentration.

In individuals with diabetes mellitus type I, insulin is no longer produced by the pancreas, and must be supplemented by intravenous injection, or the afflicted individual will eventually die.


All of the following symptoms might be associated with untreated diabetes mellitus type I except:

A Extremely high blood glucose.
B Extremely low blood glucose.
C The excretion of glucose in the urine.
D Dehydration due to water loss in the urine.
Ans. B

If diabetes type I is untreated, no insulin exists to reduce the blood sugar, causing it to build up to extremely high levels, so much so that it upsets the osmotic balance between the cells and blood, causing water to leave the cells, enter the blood, and be excreted. The tremendous amounts of glucose also tax the kidneys’ mechanism for reabsorbing it, so some is excreted in the urine.

The Digestive, Respiratory, and Urinary Systems Flashcard List

10 flashcards
1)
Some individuals do not produce sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase to digest the sugar lactose, present in milk and dairy products, and are referred to as “lactose intolerant”. Lactose is a disaccharide, which must be broken down by lactase into its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and galactose, before it can be absorbed. If not broken down, it remains in the small intestines and is passed along into the large intestine, a place it does not belong, with waste materials. The results can range from dehydration and diarrhea to intestinal cramps and bloating. The pain and bloating often experienced by the lactose intolerant after lactose ingestion are caused by intestinal bacteria that metabolize the lactose to which they are normally not exposed. Products of this fermentation include organic acids and various gases. Some products are available to allow lactose intolerant individuals to eat lactose containing products, and are meant to be ingested just before eating milk or dairy products. Which of the following is a reasonable explanation of the observation that lactose intolerant individuals become dehydrated after lactose consumption?A The presence of lactose in the large intestine inhibits the pituitary gland from releasing the hormone ADH.B Large amounts of lactose in the large intestine increase the osmotic pressure, causing water to be retained there and eliminated with wastes, whereas it would normally be reabsorbed into the blood.C Because they cannot drink milk, lactose intolerant individuals are deprived of an important water source.D The presence of lactose in the large intestine causes more frequent urination.
2)
Some individuals do not produce sufficient amounts of the enzyme lactase to digest the sugar lactose, present in milk and dairy products, and are referred to as “lactose intolerant”. Lactose is a disaccharide, which must be broken down by lactase into its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and galactose, before it can be absorbed. If not broken down, it remains in the small intestines and is passed along into the large intestine, a place it does not belong, with waste materials. The results can range from dehydration and diarrhea to intestinal cramps and bloating. The pain and bloating often experienced by the lactose intolerant after lactose ingestion are caused by intestinal bacteria that metabolize the lactose to which they are normally not exposed. Products of this fermentation include organic acids and various gases. Some products are available to allow lactose intolerant individuals to eat lactose containing products, and are meant to be ingested just before eating milk or dairy products. What is the likely nature of the products that, if taken before lactose ingestion, will inhibit the symptoms of lactose intolerant individuals?A They are likely antibiotics that kill the bacteria in the intestine so that they cannot metabolize the sugar.B They probably contain the enzyme lactase, which will end up in the small intestine and allow lactose digestion.C They are probably cocktails of various drugs that inhibit urination and help to ease the pain.D They are likely drugs that allow the small intestine to absorb undigested lactose.
3)
After glucose is absorbed by the small intestine, it is transported to the liver, where many “decisions” are made regarding its fate. These decisions are hormonally effected, and include release of some glucose into the blood, storage of some as glycogen, and conversion of some to fat. The hormones insulin and glucagon are produced by the pancreas; insulin is produced in response to high blood sugar, as after a meal, and tells body cells to take up glucose from the blood, while notifying the liver to store or convert any excess. Glucagon targets the liver when blood sugar is low, telling it to break down some glycogen and release it into the blood as glucose. The interaction of these hormones acts like a thermostat to maintain a relatively constant blood glucose concentration. In individuals with diabetes mellitus type I, insulin is no longer produced by the pancreas, and must be supplemented by intravenous injection, or the afflicted individual will eventually die. Why must insulin be injected intravenously, while other enzymes such as lactase can be taken orally, by pill.A Insulin is a protein; if it was taken by mouth, it would be broken down into its constituent amino acids, and would never enter the blood.B Since insulin affects glucose concentrations, if it were ingested it would halt the absorption of glucose by the small intestine.C If insulin was taken in pill form, it would interact with glucagon secreted by the pancreas in the small intestine, and the two would “neutralize” each other.D None of the above answers is reasonable.
4)
5)
After glucose is absorbed by the small intestine, it is transported to the liver, where many “decisions” are made regarding its fate. These decisions are hormonally effected, and include release of some glucose into the blood, storage of some as glycogen, and conversion of some to fat. The hormones insulin and glucagon are produced by the pancreas; insulin is produced in response to high blood sugar, as after a meal, and tells body cells to take up glucose from the blood, while notifying the liver to store or convert any excess. Glucagon targets the liver when blood sugar is low, telling it to break down some glycogen and release it into the blood as glucose. The interaction of these hormones acts like a thermostat to maintain a relatively constant blood glucose concentration. In individuals with diabetes mellitus type I, insulin is no longer produced by the pancreas, and must be supplemented by intravenous injection, or the afflicted individual will eventually die. Sometimes if the administration of glucose is not timed properly, insulin is injected but an individual does not eat for a prolonged period of time. This can lead to insulin shock, during which a person loses consciousness and can die. The probable cause of insulin shock is:A The injected insulin causes the blood sugar to become so low that glucose is not available to fuel the body’s needs.B The injected insulin causes so much glucose to be released into the blood that the surge of energy can cause heart rhythm irregularities.C The injected insulin suppresses hunger, so that the person does not realize they should eat.D Injected insulin causes the inhibition of glucagon synthesis, so no glycogen can be broken down to glucose by the liver.
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