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Biological Sciences

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Biological Molecules

Question
4 out of 10
 

Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture.

Experiment 1

Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown.

Bacterial strain

Radioactive element

strain 1

carbon

strain 2

phosphorous

strain 3

nitrogen

strain 4

oxygen

Experiment 2

Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented.

Auxotrophic strain

Supplement

strain A

arginine, an amino acid

strain B

decanoic acid, a fatty acid

Experiment 3

Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity.


In experiment 2, the arginine requiring auxotrophic strain A was supplemented with arginine to allow growth. If the cells were not supplemented with arginine, the cells could not grow because arginine is directly required for the synthesis of:

A DNA
B Proteins
C Fatty acids
D RNA

Ans. B

We are told that arginine is an amino acid, and amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. DNA and RNA are made up of nucleotides, while fatty acids are long chain hydrocarbons that are not considered polymers, and certainly are not formed from amino acids.

Biological Molecules Flashcard List

10 flashcards
1)
Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture. Experiment 1 Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown. Bacterial strain Radioactive element strain 1 carbon strain 2 phosphorous strain 3 nitrogen strain 4 oxygen Experiment 2 Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented. Auxotrophic strain Supplement strain A arginine, an amino acid strain B decanoic acid, a fatty acid Experiment 3 Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity. Which of the following biomolecules isolated from Strain 2 would we expect to be radioactively labeled according to the table from experiment 1?A RNAB ProteinsC GlucoseD Amino acids
2)
Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture. Experiment 1 Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown. Bacterial strain Radioactive element strain 1 carbon strain 2 phosphorous strain 3 nitrogen strain 4 oxygen Experiment 2 Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented. Auxotrophic strain Supplement strain A arginine, an amino acid strain B decanoic acid, a fatty acid Experiment 3 Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity. Which of the following biomolecules isolated from Strain 3 would we expect to be radioactively labeled according to the table from experiment 1?A DNA, but not RNAB DNA and RNA, but not proteinsC RNA and proteinsD DNA and fatty acids
3)
Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture. Experiment 1 Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown. Bacterial strain Radioactive element strain 1 carbon strain 2 phosphorous strain 3 nitrogen strain 4 oxygen Experiment 2 Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented. Auxotrophic strain Supplement strain A arginine, an amino acid strain B decanoic acid, a fatty acid Experiment 3 Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity. Which of the following biomolecules isolated from Strain 1 would we expect to be radioactively labeled according to the table from experiment 1?A CholesterolB PhospholipidsC Both A and BD Neither A nor B
4)
Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture. Experiment 1 Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown. Bacterial strain Radioactive element strain 1 carbon strain 2 phosphorous strain 3 nitrogen strain 4 oxygen Experiment 2 Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented. Auxotrophic strain Supplement strain A arginine, an amino acid strain B decanoic acid, a fatty acid Experiment 3 Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity. In experiment 2, the arginine requiring auxotrophic strain A was supplemented with arginine to allow growth. If the cells were not supplemented with arginine, the cells could not grow because arginine is directly required for the synthesis of:A DNAB ProteinsC Fatty acidsD RNA
5)
Often, bacteria are grown on a medium that contains all of the components they need to survive. This includes an energy source, a carbon source, and sources of all the mineral salts the bacteria require to carry out their metabolic reactions. Sometimes, a mutant bacterium is isolated that needs more than the usual minimum requirements, because it cannot carry out the reactions necessary to produce a needed substance. These mutants are referred to as auxotrophs; if they are to grow, they must be supplemented with the substance they need but cannot manufacture. Experiment 1 Bacteria were grown on media containing different radioactively labeled atoms to determine which types of biological molecules would be radioactively labeled. Molecules become labeled as they are synthesized by the bacteria using the raw materials provided by the medium. The bacteria were grown for a period of time that was sufficient to label all molecules that could be labeled, and the major types of biomolecules were isolated and tested for the presence of radioactivity. The following table shows the various strains of bacteria and the radioactive element present in the media in which they were grown. Bacterial strain Radioactive element strain 1 carbon strain 2 phosphorous strain 3 nitrogen strain 4 oxygen Experiment 2 Auxotrophic bacteria were grown on media supplemented with the substance that they need but cannot manufacture. If they were not supplemented in this way, no growth would be observed. The following table shows two auxotrophic strains and the substance with which they were supplemented. Auxotrophic strain Supplement strain A arginine, an amino acid strain B decanoic acid, a fatty acid Experiment 3 Auxotrophic strain A (from Experiment 2) was grown on a medium that contained supplemental arginine and radioactive phosphorus, and the major types of biomolecules were again isolated and tested for radioactivity. In experiment 3, which of the following biomolecules would we expect to become labeled?A All proteins, DNA, and RNAB Only proteins containing arginine, but not DNA or RNAC DNA, RNA, and only those proteins that contain arginineD RNA and phospholipids
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