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Hydrocarbons undergo combustion reactions in the presence of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water as products. Combustion reactions are very exothermic giving out energy, as they burn in the presence of oxygen.

Sample reaction 15-1

CH4 + 2O2 __________> CO2 + 2 H2O               ΔH0 = – 890 kJ


The halogenation reaction can be generalized as follows:

RH + X2 _________> RX + HX

In this substitution reaction, the halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine) substitutes one hydrogen atom in the alkane, forming hydrogen halide and alkyl halide as the products. The reactivity of halogens in the halogenation reactions is as follows:

Fluorine > Chlorine > Bromine > Iodine


Fluorine is the most reactive among halogens in halogenation reactions, and iodine is the least reactive.

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