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Biological Sciences

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The Cardiovascular And Lymphatic Systems And The Immune Response

Question
6 out of 10
 

By definition, which type of blood vessel must be connected to a ventricle of the heart?

A An artery
B A vein
C A capillary
D Any of the above could be connected to a heart ventricle.
Ans. A Since we know that the proper definition of an artery is a vessel that takes blood away from the heart, and that the ventricle pumps blood away from the heart, vessels attached to ventricles must be arteries.

The Cardiovascular And Lymphatic Systems And The Immune Response Flashcard List

10 flashcards
1)
Considering the amazing quantities and diversity of pathogens that exist in the environment, vertebrates had to develop a complex defense system, or they would have perished. In humans, as in most animals, there are multiple lines of defense against potential pathogens. The integumentary membranes (skin and mucous membranes) provide a physical barrier to pathogens. If these are compromised, the inflammatory response is stimulated, during which neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders nonspecifically. If an infection becomes systemic, the immune response is the last resort. Lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that mainly reside in the lymph nodes, specifically attack pathogens in the blood and lymph. B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, which involves the reaction of protein antibody molecules with antigenic markers on the pathogen. T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, during which antigens are presented to T cells by antigen presenting cells of the human body, often macrophages or virally infected cells. Several diseases can cause the immune system to become weakened or almost completely destroyed. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the HIV virus, which attacks helper T cells that normally produce chemicals (interleukins) that stimulate the entire immune system. While functional cytotoxic T cells and plasma B cells can be created, their general activity is low due to lack of interleukin stimulation. Type I diabetes mellitus is an example of an autoimmune disease, in which lymphocytes attack normal body cells, in this case the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Perhaps the most devastating immune disease is called severe combined immune deficiency (SCID); individuals with this luckily rare condition have virtually no functioning lymphocytes, and often must live in vinyl bubbles to completely cut them off from any contact with pathogens. What do the diseases AIDS and SCID have in common?A In both cases, functional antibodies cannot be produced.B In both cases, any secondary infection must cause death.C In both cases, T cells are either absent or relatively inactive.D Both diseases are caused by viral infection.
2)
Considering the amazing quantities and diversity of pathogens that exist in the environment, vertebrates had to develop a complex defense system, or they would have perished. In humans, as in most animals, there are multiple lines of defense against potential pathogens. The integumentary membranes (skin and mucous membranes) provide a physical barrier to pathogens. If these are compromised, the inflammatory response is stimulated, during which neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders nonspecifically. If an infection becomes systemic, the immune response is the last resort. Lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that mainly reside in the lymph nodes, specifically attack pathogens in the blood and lymph. B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, which involves the reaction of protein antibody molecules with antigenic markers on the pathogen. T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, during which antigens are presented to T cells by antigen presenting cells of the human body, often macrophages or virally infected cells. Several diseases can cause the immune system to become weakened or almost completely destroyed. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the HIV virus, which attacks helper T cells that normally produce chemicals (interleukins) that stimulate the entire immune system. While functional cytotoxic T cells and plasma B cells can be created, their general activity is low due to lack of interleukin stimulation. Type I diabetes mellitus is an example of an autoimmune disease, in which lymphocytes attack normal body cells, in this case the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Perhaps the most devastating immune disease is called severe combined immune deficiency (SCID); individuals with this luckily rare condition have virtually no functioning lymphocytes, and often must live in vinyl bubbles to completely cut them off from any contact with pathogens. During HIV infection:A Bacteria infect helper T cells, leading to compromised immunity.B Functional antibodies to antigens on the HIV virus are produced.C All T cells in the body are destroyed by the virus.D HIV can be found infecting B cells.
3)
Considering the amazing quantities and diversity of pathogens that exist in the environment, vertebrates had to develop a complex defense system, or they would have perished. In humans, as in most animals, there are multiple lines of defense against potential pathogens. The integumentary membranes (skin and mucous membranes) provide a physical barrier to pathogens. If these are compromised, the inflammatory response is stimulated, during which neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders nonspecifically. If an infection becomes systemic, the immune response is the last resort. Lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that mainly reside in the lymph nodes, specifically attack pathogens in the blood and lymph. B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, which involves the reaction of protein antibody molecules with antigenic markers on the pathogen. T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, during which antigens are presented to T cells by antigen presenting cells of the human body, often macrophages or virally infected cells. Several diseases can cause the immune system to become weakened or almost completely destroyed. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the HIV virus, which attacks helper T cells that normally produce chemicals (interleukins) that stimulate the entire immune system. While functional cytotoxic T cells and plasma B cells can be created, their general activity is low due to lack of interleukin stimulation. Type I diabetes mellitus is an example of an autoimmune disease, in which lymphocytes attack normal body cells, in this case the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Perhaps the most devastating immune disease is called severe combined immune deficiency (SCID); individuals with this luckily rare condition have virtually no functioning lymphocytes, and often must live in vinyl bubbles to completely cut them off from any contact with pathogens. Which of the following statements is true of the inflammatory response?A B lymphocytes are important during inflammation, as they specifically phagocytize foreign invaders.B Phagocytic white blood cells act nonspecifically to phagocytize invaders.C It does nothing to actually destroy pathogens that enter the body; it only stops them from spreading to other regions of the body.D Red blood cells must be involved in phagocytosis, since swelling and redness are caused by massive amounts of red blood cells entering the inflamed area.
4)
Considering the amazing quantities and diversity of pathogens that exist in the environment, vertebrates had to develop a complex defense system, or they would have perished. In humans, as in most animals, there are multiple lines of defense against potential pathogens. The integumentary membranes (skin and mucous membranes) provide a physical barrier to pathogens. If these are compromised, the inflammatory response is stimulated, during which neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders nonspecifically. If an infection becomes systemic, the immune response is the last resort. Lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that mainly reside in the lymph nodes, specifically attack pathogens in the blood and lymph. B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, which involves the reaction of protein antibody molecules with antigenic markers on the pathogen. T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, during which antigens are presented to T cells by antigen presenting cells of the human body, often macrophages or virally infected cells. Several diseases can cause the immune system to become weakened or almost completely destroyed. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the HIV virus, which attacks helper T cells that normally produce chemicals (interleukins) that stimulate the entire immune system. While functional cytotoxic T cells and plasma B cells can be created, their general activity is low due to lack of interleukin stimulation. Type I diabetes mellitus is an example of an autoimmune disease, in which lymphocytes attack normal body cells, in this case the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Perhaps the most devastating immune disease is called severe combined immune deficiency (SCID); individuals with this luckily rare condition have virtually no functioning lymphocytes, and often must live in vinyl bubbles to completely cut them off from any contact with pathogens. Which physical barrier would be most susceptible to infection?A Intact skinB The respiratory mucous membraneC Infection never occurs through skin or mucous membranes.D They both present an equivalent barrier to pathogens.
5)
Considering the amazing quantities and diversity of pathogens that exist in the environment, vertebrates had to develop a complex defense system, or they would have perished. In humans, as in most animals, there are multiple lines of defense against potential pathogens. The integumentary membranes (skin and mucous membranes) provide a physical barrier to pathogens. If these are compromised, the inflammatory response is stimulated, during which neutrophils and macrophages phagocytize foreign invaders nonspecifically. If an infection becomes systemic, the immune response is the last resort. Lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that mainly reside in the lymph nodes, specifically attack pathogens in the blood and lymph. B lymphocytes are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity, which involves the reaction of protein antibody molecules with antigenic markers on the pathogen. T lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, during which antigens are presented to T cells by antigen presenting cells of the human body, often macrophages or virally infected cells. Several diseases can cause the immune system to become weakened or almost completely destroyed. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease caused by the HIV virus, which attacks helper T cells that normally produce chemicals (interleukins) that stimulate the entire immune system. While functional cytotoxic T cells and plasma B cells can be created, their general activity is low due to lack of interleukin stimulation. Type I diabetes mellitus is an example of an autoimmune disease, in which lymphocytes attack normal body cells, in this case the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Perhaps the most devastating immune disease is called severe combined immune deficiency (SCID); individuals with this luckily rare condition have virtually no functioning lymphocytes, and often must live in vinyl bubbles to completely cut them off from any contact with pathogens. Which of the following statements is true regarding the immune response?A B cells can only be stimulated if antigen is presented to them by an antigen presenting cell.B T cells can only be stimulated if antigen is presented to them by an antigen presenting cell.C Macrophages exert their action by producing antibodies.D Macrophages are very specific, and can only phagocytize pathogens of a single type.
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