Introduction to Chemistry of Solutions
When we think of solutions, we normally think of a solution formed by dissolving a solid (e.g., sugar) in a liquid (e.g., water). In reality, any combination of the three states can be considered a solution. In fact, air is a solution which is a mixture of various gases. Carbonated water (soda) is a mixture of a gas (CO2) dissolved in a liquid (H2O). Even alloys such as gold-silver alloys are solutions containing two solids. A true solution is a solution which has only one solvent with one or more solutes. In this chapter, we will be limiting our discussion mostly to water based solutions because of their versatility and importance to life sciences. We will discuss various aspects such as solubility of compounds, and precipitation reactions.