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Normality

The normality (N) of a solution is the number of equivalents of solute per liter of solution. The equivalent is usually defined in terms of a chemical reaction. For acid-base reactions, an equivalent is the amount of substance that will react or form 1 mole of hydrogen (H+) or hydroxide (OH–) ions. For redox (oxidation-reduction) reactions, an equivalent is the amount of substance that will react or form 1 mole of electrons.
 


 

Normality is a multiple of molarity. The following equation relates normality and molarity.
N = n M
 
For acids, the number of H+ available from a formula unit of the acid gives the number of equivalents (n).
For example, 1 M H2SO4 solution is a 2 N solution, because each molecule of H2SO4 can give two H+.
 
For bases, the number of OH– available from a formula unit of the base gives the number of equivalents.
For example, a 2 M Ca(OH)2 solution is a 4 N solution.





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