Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

Biological Sciences

Open Flashcards

The Nervous and Endocrine Systems

Question
6 out of 10
 

Often drinking excessive quantities of beer can lead to dehydration later. This can be explained because alcohol inhibits the hormone:

A ADH.
B Adrenalin.
C Norepinephrine.
D Glucagon.
Ans. A ADH (antidiuretic hormone) tells the walls of the collecting duct and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron to become permeable to water, allowing it to avoid being excreted in the urine. If it is inhibited, the urine will contain excessive water, causing dehydration. The other hormones listed do not directly affect water balance.

The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Flashcard List

10 flashcards
1)
Both the nervous and endocrine systems are involved with communication among body parts, but they exert their actions by different methods. The nervous system uses electrochemical impulses to convey messages through nervous tissue at high speeds, while the endocrine system uses chemical hormones that are released into the blood and directly interact with their target cells. There is some evidence that the nervous amd endocrine systems are evolutionarily related. Hormones can be of two major types chemically: protein (including amines and peptides) or steroid. Each type of hormone normally exerts its effects differently. Protein hormones, such as insulin, adrenalin, ADH, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interact with a membrane bound extracellular receptor on their target cells, which causes changes inside of the cell. This usually leads to the activation or inhibition of enzymes through a second-messenger system utilizing cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the second messenger. Steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol can diffuse through cell membranes, and usually act by affecting gene expression, but only after interacting with an intracellular receptor. McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetic disease in which cAMP is synthesized in large quantities even when a signaling hormone is not present; it results in the over-secretion of many hormones, and increased effects of many hormones on their target cells. Target cells of someone who suffers from McCune-Albright syndrome are likely to overreact to the presence of a hormone or respond to a hormone message even when the hormone is not present. Which of the following hormones would not cause overreaction or false message reception in an affected individual?A InsulinB ADHC TestosteroneD Adrenalin
2)
Both the nervous and endocrine systems are involved with communication among body parts, but they exert their actions by different methods. The nervous system uses electrochemical impulses to convey messages through nervous tissue at high speeds, while the endocrine system uses chemical hormones that are released into the blood and directly interact with their target cells. There is some evidence that the nervous amd endocrine systems are evolutionarily related. Hormones can be of two major types chemically: protein (including amines and peptides) or steroid. Each type of hormone normally exerts its effects differently. Protein hormones, such as insulin, adrenalin, ADH, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interact with a membrane bound extracellular receptor on their target cells, which causes changes inside of the cell. This usually leads to the activation or inhibition of enzymes through a second-messenger system utilizing cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the second messenger. Steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol can diffuse through cell membranes, and usually act by affecting gene expression, but only after interacting with an intracellular receptor. McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetic disease in which cAMP is synthesized in large quantities even when a signaling hormone is not present; it results in the over-secretion of many hormones, and increased effects of many hormones on their target cells. Some evidence that the nervous and endocrine systems are evolutionarily related comes from the fact that certain molecules function similarly to hormones during transmission of nerve impulses. Which of the following types of molecules fits this description?A The sodium potassium pumpB Gated potassium channelsC NeurotransmittersD Neurotransmitter receptors
3)
Both the nervous and endocrine systems are involved with communication among body parts, but they exert their actions by different methods. The nervous system uses electrochemical impulses to convey messages through nervous tissue at high speeds, while the endocrine system uses chemical hormones that are released into the blood and directly interact with their target cells. There is some evidence that the nervous amd endocrine systems are evolutionarily related. Hormones can be of two major types chemically: protein (including amines and peptides) or steroid. Each type of hormone normally exerts its effects differently. Protein hormones, such as insulin, adrenalin, ADH, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interact with a membrane bound extracellular receptor on their target cells, which causes changes inside of the cell. This usually leads to the activation or inhibition of enzymes through a second-messenger system utilizing cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the second messenger. Steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol can diffuse through cell membranes, and usually act by affecting gene expression, but only after interacting with an intracellular receptor. McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetic disease in which cAMP is synthesized in large quantities even when a signaling hormone is not present; it results in the over-secretion of many hormones, and increased effects of many hormones on their target cells. The major connection between the nervous and endocrine systems that allows them to coordinate their activities is represented by:A The cerbral cortex directly stimulating the thyroid gland.B The brainstem controlling heart and breathing rate, which is also controlled by adrenalin.C The ability of the cerebellum to coordinate the actions of several endocrine glands.D The intimate connection between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
4)
Both the nervous and endocrine systems are involved with communication among body parts, but they exert their actions by different methods. The nervous system uses electrochemical impulses to convey messages through nervous tissue at high speeds, while the endocrine system uses chemical hormones that are released into the blood and directly interact with their target cells. There is some evidence that the nervous amd endocrine systems are evolutionarily related. Hormones can be of two major types chemically: protein (including amines and peptides) or steroid. Each type of hormone normally exerts its effects differently. Protein hormones, such as insulin, adrenalin, ADH, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interact with a membrane bound extracellular receptor on their target cells, which causes changes inside of the cell. This usually leads to the activation or inhibition of enzymes through a second-messenger system utilizing cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the second messenger. Steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol can diffuse through cell membranes, and usually act by affecting gene expression, but only after interacting with an intracellular receptor. McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetic disease in which cAMP is synthesized in large quantities even when a signaling hormone is not present; it results in the over-secretion of many hormones, and increased effects of many hormones on their target cells. Testosterone is a steroid hormone; its release from the testes in males is controlled by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Which of the following statements is true?A Both of these hormones affect target cells using a second messenger system.B An individual with McCune-Albright syndrome is likely to over-produce testosterone.C An individual with McCune-Albright syndrome is likely to under-produce testosterone.D An individual with McCune-Albright syndrome would produce normal amounts of testosterone, but the target cells responding to testosterone would overreact to the message.
5)
Both the nervous and endocrine systems are involved with communication among body parts, but they exert their actions by different methods. The nervous system uses electrochemical impulses to convey messages through nervous tissue at high speeds, while the endocrine system uses chemical hormones that are released into the blood and directly interact with their target cells. There is some evidence that the nervous amd endocrine systems are evolutionarily related. Hormones can be of two major types chemically: protein (including amines and peptides) or steroid. Each type of hormone normally exerts its effects differently. Protein hormones, such as insulin, adrenalin, ADH, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interact with a membrane bound extracellular receptor on their target cells, which causes changes inside of the cell. This usually leads to the activation or inhibition of enzymes through a second-messenger system utilizing cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the second messenger. Steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol can diffuse through cell membranes, and usually act by affecting gene expression, but only after interacting with an intracellular receptor. McCune-Albright syndrome is a genetic disease in which cAMP is synthesized in large quantities even when a signaling hormone is not present; it results in the over-secretion of many hormones, and increased effects of many hormones on their target cells. Stanozolol is a synthetic steroid that resembles testosterone in its chemistry and action. It is often the drug athletes are ingesting when they are said to be on “steroids”. Which of the following statements is true of Stanozolol?A It is likely to exert its effects by binding to an external receptor and triggering a second messenger system.B It is likely to be found in all cells of the body after being ingested.C It will likely only be found in muscle cells after being ingested.D It would affect an individual with McCune-Albright syndrome more drastically than a normal individual.
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)