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Introduction to Transcription and Translation

Every cell in an organism contains the same DNA. In multicellular organisms, cells often have different structures and perform different functions. Think about humans: we have heart cells and liver cells, skin cells and bone cells, nerve cells and muscle cells. But how can cells be so different when they contain the same genetic information?
The answer lies in how each cell uses the information. Although they contain the same blueprint, each cell in your body only uses part of the DNA. It’s like two people who have access to the Internet. They both have the same information at hand, but they will probably use it differently.
This chapter addresses how genetic information can be transmitted from a stored source (the DNA) into a functional entity (protein). This procedure is traditionally known as the Central Dogma (see Figure 6.1) and details the transmission of the message from DNA into RNA into proteins via the processes of transcription and translation. The process of translation is also known as protein synthesis.

The Central Dogma

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