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Introduction

 

 

 

Microcontroller
 

Comparison between microprocessor and microcontroller
 

Microprocessor is a single-chip CPU.  The block diagram of microprocessor is given below.  The microcontroller is a single-chip microcomputer system as given below.


 
It consists of an ALU to perform arithmetic and logic manipulations, registers and a control unit.  It consists of CPU, data and program memory, serial and parallel I/O, timers, external and internal interrupts.
It has address bus, data bus and control bus for interfacing with the outside world. Microcontroller communicates with outside world through P0, P1, P2 and P3 ports. Ports can be used as address and data bus depending upon control signals.
RAM and ROM are not incorporated within chip. RAM is smaller, but it is enough for small applications. If it is not sufficient, then external memory may be added in the microcontroller-based system.
Microprocessors are used as the CPU in the microcomputer systems.  Microcontrollers are used in small embedded system products to perform control-oriented functions.
Microprocessor instructions perform operations based on nibbles and bytes.  Microcontroller instructions are able to perform bit-level operations and other operations such as based on nibbles, bytes, words, or even double words.
Microprocessors are available from 4-bit to 64-bit. 4-bit microprocessors are used for simple applications. 8-bit microprocessors are most commonly used in different applications. 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit microprocessors are used for personal computers and high speed applications Microcontrollers are available from 4-bit to 32-bit. 4-bit microcontrollers are used for simple applications. 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers are used for high speed applications. 8-bit microcontrollers are most commonly used in different applications.

 

A list of microcontroller applications is given below:


Consumer Products
 Washing machines, micro-ovens, printers, copiers, compressors, AC machines.


Industrial Applications
 Control power electronics circuits, DC and AC motor drives, speed and position control, and motion control, etc.


Automation
 Antilock braking systems, electronic power steering systems, etc.


High-speed data processing
 Video conference, image processing, video processing, real-time compression systems and security, etc.
 

Table: 4-bit microcontroller families
 

IC No. of Pins No. of I/O Pins On-chip data memory RAM On-chip program memory, ROM Counters Extra features
TLCS 47 42 35 128 bytes 2K ROM   Serial I/O
TMS1000 28 23  64 bytes 1K ROM   LED display
COP 420 28 23  64 bytes 1K ROM 1 Serial I/O
MSM6411 16 11  32 bytes 1K ROM    
HMCS 40 28 10  32 bytes 512 ROM    



Table: 8-bit microcontroller families

 

IC No. of Pins No. of I/O Pins On-chip data memory RAM On-chip program memory, ROM No. of 16-bit timers/counters No. of vectored interrupts Extra Features
8031 40 32 128 bytes None 2 5 Full duplex serial I/O
8032 40 32 256 bytes None 3 6 Full duplex serial I/O
8051 40 32 128 bytes 4K ROM 2 5 Full duplex serial I/O
8052 40 32 256 bytes 8K ROM 3 6 Full duplex serial I/O
8751 40 32 128 bytes 4K ROM 2 5 Full duplex serial I/O
8752 40 32 256 bytes 8K ROM 3 6 Full duplex serial I/O

 

Table: 16-bit microcontroller families

 

IC No. of Pins No. of I/O Pins On-chip data memory RAM On-chip program memory, ROM No. of 16-bit timers/counters No. of vectored interrupts Extra Features
HPC 46146 60 52 512 bytes 16K bytes ROM 4 8 External memory up to 64K, full duplex UART, ADC
8096 68 40 256 bytes 8K bytes ROM 2 7 External memory up to 64K
8094 48 24 256 bytes 2 7 External memory up to 64K
8097 68 24 256 bytes 2 8 External memory up to 64K
8095 48 20 256 bytes 2 8 External memory up to 64K
8397 68 24 256 bytes 8K bytes ROM 2 8 External memory up to 64K
8395 48 20 256 bytes 8K bytes ROM 2 8 External memory up to 64K
80C196 EA 160 83 1K bytes register RAM 3K bytes code RAM 8K bytes ROM 4 16 External memory up to 2MB, Serial I/O, ADC
 





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