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Blood Relationship

In this chapter, we deal with problems involving relationships among the people. Students are required to analyse the given statements and find out the relationship among the people. Some of the commonly used relationships are given below:
1. Mother’s or father’s son : Brother
2. Mother’s or father’s daughter : Sister
3. Mother’s or father’s brother : Uncle (Paternal uncle if he is father’s brother and maternal uncle if he is mother’s brother)
4. Mother’s or father’s sister : Aunt
5. Mother’s or father’s father : Grandfather
6. Mother’s or father’s mother : Grandmother
7. Grandmother’s brother : Granduncle
8. Grandmother’s sister : Grandaunt
9. Grandfather’s brother : Granduncle
10. Grandfather’s sister : Grandaunt
11. Son’s wife : Daughter-in-law
12. Daughter’s husband : Son-in-law
13. Husband’s or wife’s sister : Sister-in-law
14. Husband’s or wife’s brother : Brother-in-law
15. Brother’s or sister’s son : Nephew
16. Brother’s or sister’s daughter : Niece
17. Paternal grandfather’s only son : Father
18. Paternal grandmother’s only son : Father
19. Grandfather’s son : Father/uncle
20. Grandmother’s son : Father/uncle
21. Paternal grandfather’s only daughter-in-law : Mother
22. Paternal Grandmother’s only daughter-in-law : Mother
23. Uncle’s or aunt’s son or daughter : Cousin
24. Sister’s husband : Brother-in-law
25. Brother’s wife : Sister-in-law
26. Children of same parents : Siblings (could be all brothers, all sisters or some brothers and some sisters)
27. Husband or wife : Spouse
For solving problems involving blood relationships, sometimes it would be convenient if a family tree is drawn. Family tree is a chart showing the descent of a family. It is also called genealogical tree. Following points are to be remembered while drawing a family tree.
  • The order of hierarchy is to be strictly maintained. To make this point clear, consider a family of a person A, consisting of his grandparents, parents, uncles, aunts, sisters, brothers, wife, children and grandchildren.
  • Grandfather and grandmother will come in the first stage of the family tree.
  • Mother, father, uncles and aunts will come in the second stage.
  • Sisters, brothers and wife will come in the third stage along with A.
  • Sons and daughters will come in the fourth stage.
  • Grandsons and granddaughters will come in the last stage.
Some symbols are used to indicate relationship between the two persons, as explained below:
  1. Vertical or diagonal lines are used to represent parent–child relationships.
  2. Double horizontal lines with arrow on both sides (⇔) are used to represent husband–wife relationship. Dotted horizontal line (………) is used to represent brother–sister relationship.
  3. Plus sign (+) is used to indicate a male and minus sign (−) is used to indicate a female.
  4. Whenever the information is not clear or concealed the sign ‘?’ is used.
To understand the concept of a family tree clearly, observe the following family tree.
Description: 101748.png

The above family tree gives the following information.
  1. X and Y are a couple, where X is the husband and Y is the wife.
  2. X has a sister Z.
  3. The couple X and Y have 3 children, namely A, C and another son whose name is not given. C is a son and the sex of ‘A’ is not known.
  4. C is married to D and they have a daughter E and a son whose name is not known.
  5. A and the other son of X are unmarried.
In some questions, the relationship between two persons is given in a roundabout manner by relating them through other people. Students are required to analyse the series of relationships given in the problems carefully in order to determine the relationship between the two given persons.

The information given in the problems can be broadly classified into three categories:
  1. Actual information;
  2. Useful secondary information; and
  3. Negative information.

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