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Alkanes

These are compounds containing single bonds between carbon atoms. They are also known as paraffins (meaning lacking affinity or less reactivity). The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n = 1, 2, 3, 4 etc.
 
Lists the different types of alkanes and their respective molecular formulae.
 

Types of Alkanes

General Molecular Formula

Value of n

Molecular Formula

Name of the Alkane

CnH2n+2

1

CH4

Methane

2

C2H6

Ethane

3

C3H8

Propane

4

C4H10

Butane

25

C5H12

Pentane

6

C6H14

Hexane

7

C7H16

Heptane

8

C8H18

Octane

9

C9H20

Nonane

10

C10H22

Decane

Preparation of Alkanes

  1. From alkenes: Alkenes on reduction in the presence of nickel catalyst give alkanes.
     
    Description: 31628.png 
  2. Reduction of alkyl halides: Alkyl halides on reduction with zinc and HCl or Zn–Cu in alcohol give alkanes.
     
    Description: 31636.png 
  3. From salts of carboxylic acids: Alkanes are obtained by decarboxylation of salts of carboxylic acids.
     
    Description: 31643.png
Chemical Reactions
  1. Chlorination
     
    Description: 31652.png 
  2. Nitration
    1. CH4 + HNO3 Description: 39365.jpg CH3NO2 + H2O




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