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Various Formulae Used in Calculations

  1. Number of moles of atoms Description: 26959.png
  2. Number of moles of a molecule Description: 26968.png
  3. Number of particles = Number of moles × Avogadro number
  4. Volume of gas = Number of moles × Molar gas volume

Concentration or Strength of Solution

The amount of solute dissolved in a unit quantity (volume or mass) of a solution is known as the concentration or strength of the solution.
 
There are four different methods to express the concentration of a solution.
 
  1. (i) Percentage by mass: Percentage by mass is defined as the number of parts by mass of the solute dissolved per hundred parts by mass of the solution.
     
    For example, 10% of mass of solution of sugar in water may have 10 g of sugar dissolved in 90 g of the solvent.
     
    The concentration of the solution is expressed as Description: 26980.png sugar by mass.
     
    (ii) Percentage by volume: Percentage by volume is defined as the number of parts by volume of the solute dissolved in hundred parts by volume of the solution.
  2. Molarity (M): Molarity is defined as the number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L of the solution.
     
    Molarity (MDescription: 26991.png
  3. Molality (m): Molality is defined as the number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1000 g of a solvent.
     
    Molality (mDescription: 27005.png
  4. Mole fraction: Mole fraction is defined as the ratio of the number of moles of the solute or solvent present in the solution to the total number of moles present in the solution.
     
    Let the number of moles of solute in solution = n
     
    Number of moles of solvent in solution = N
     
     Total number of moles in solution = n + N
     
    Mole fraction of solute = Description: 27023.png
     
    Mole fraction of solvent = Description: 27031.png





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