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Some Useful Compounds

Sodium Chloride, (NaCl)
 
Common Name Common salt
Preparation It is obtained from sea water as a mixture (Na2SO4, CaSO4, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCl2), passed over HCl, and the filtrate is washed and dried.
Uses Food supplement

 
 


Sodium carbonate, (Na2CO3)
 
Common Name Soda ash–
Na2CO3
 
Crystals of carbonate–
Na2CO3 ∙ H2O
 
Washing soda crystals–
Na2CO3 · 10H2O
Preparation Solvay’s process/ammonia soda process
CO2 is passed through a concentrated NaCl solution saturated with ammonia that forms sodium bicarbonate, which is further heated to form sodium carbonate.
2NaHCO3(s)  Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Uses
  • In manufacture of soap, glass, paper, sodium hydroxide, photography
  • Used as water softener and for controlling the pH of water
  • Cleansing agent for domestic purposes

 
 


Sodium bicarbonate, (NaHCO3)
 
Common Name Baking soda
Preparation It is an intermediate product in the preparation of Na2CO3 by Solvay process.
Uses
  • In manufacture of baking powder and aerated water
  • Used for neutralisation of stomach acidity

 
 


Calcium oxide, (CaO)
 
Common Name Quick lime Caustic lime
Preparation
The process is known as calcination.
Uses
  • Used as linings in furnaces (as it has high melting point)
  • In manufacture of bleaching powder, calcium carbide, basic calcium nitride, glass
  • Important constituent of cement

 
 


Calcium hydroxide, (Ca(OH)2)
 
Common Name Slaked lime
Preparation
Slaking of lime
Clear solution of Ca(OH)2–lime water
Suspension of Ca(OH)2–milk of lime
Uses
  • In manufacture of bleaching powder, cement, mortar and in tanning industry
  • In white washing

 
 


Calcium oxy-chloride, (CaOCl2)
 
Common Name Bleaching powder
Preparation
Action of chlorine on slaked lime
Uses
  • Used for bleaching purposes
  • Used as a disinfectant and germicide, especially for sterilising water
  • To prepare chloroform
  • Used to make wool shrink-proof
  • It helps to detect carbon dioxide by turning lime water milky

 
 


Hydrated calcium sulphate, Description: 25902.png
 
Common Name Plaster of Paris
Preparation
H2O is obtained by heating gypsum (CaSO4 ∙ 2H2O) to 120°C
Description: 25893.png
Uses
  • Setting of broken bones by plastering over broken limbs
  • Used for making blackboards, chalks, toys, moulds status etc.

 
 


Calcium carbonate, (CaCO3)
 
Common Name Lime stone
Preparation
Sources are sea-shell, conches, shells of eggs, marble-stones
Uses
  • In manufacture of cement
  • In extraction of metals and as a source of carbon dioxide
  • To obtain quick lime, slaked lime

 
 


Sodium hydroxide, (NaOH)
 
Common Name Lye or caustic soda
Preparation
By electrolysis of aq NaCl solution
By evaporation gives solid NaOH
Uses
  • As strong base in chemical industry
  • In manufacture of sodium salts and detergents, for pH regulation, for organic synthesis
  • For aluminium production by Bayer’s process
  • To neutralise acids

 
 


Hydrochloric acid, (HCl)
 
Common Name Muriatic acid
Preparation
Description: 26307.png
Under diffused sunlight
H2 + Cl2  2HCl
Uses
  • In manufacture of drugs, dyes, paints, silver chloride for photography, glucose from starch, preparation of aqua regia (HCl + HNO3 mixture)
  • In extraction of glue from bones
  • In dissolving Ca3(PO4)2 in extraction of bone charcoal
  • Cleaning metal surfaces before galvanising, painting, soldering, electroplating. This process is named—picking.

 
 


Potassium hydroxide, (KOH)
 
Common Name Caustic potash
Preparation
Uses
  • In manufacture of biodiesel, soft soaps
  • Used as an electrolyte
  • Used in petroleum and natural gas refining for removal of organic acids and sulphur compounds

 
 


Potassium aluminium sulphate, (KAI(SO4)2 ·12H2O)
 
Common Name Potash alum
Potassium alum
Tawas Alum
Preparation Occurs naturally as encrustations on rocks.
Uses
  • Used in water purification, leather, tanning, dyeing, fireproof textiles, baking powder
  • Cosmetic uses—deodorant, as after shave treatment and as styptic for minor bleeding

 
 


Ammonium iron (II) sulphate, ((NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 ·6H2O)
 
Common Name Mohr’s salt or double salt of ferrous sulphate and ammonium sulphate
Preparation Dissolving an equimolar mixture of hydrated
 
FeSO4 and (NH4)2SO4; in H2O + little H2SO4
Crystallisation (light green crystals)
Uses
  • In manufacture of ink
  • To kill parasites on grass
  • To colour leather and woolen

 
 


Copper (II) sulphate, (CuSO4 ∙ 5H2O)
 
Common Name
Blue vitriol Blue stone (pentahydrate)
Preparation
Industry
Copper metal
 + hot H2SO4 (concentrated)
CuSO4 · 5H2O
Uses
  • Used as herbicide, fungicide, pesticide
  • Analytic reagent
  • Organic synthesis
  • Dyeing

 
 


Zinc sulphate, (ZnSO4)
 
Common Name White vitriol
Preparation Laboratory preparation:
Uses
  • Used as coagulant in production of rayon
  • To supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilisers and agricultural sprays
  • To control moss growth on roofs
  • As in electrolytes for zinc plating
  • Mordant in dyeing
  • As preservative and in medicine

 
 


Sulphuric acid, (H2SO4)
 
Common Name Oil of vitriol
Preparation It is prepared from sulphur, oxygen and water by the conventional contact process.
Uses
  • Domestic acidic drawing leaner
  • Electrolyte in lead-acid batteries
  • Cleaning agent
  • Mineral processing, fertiliser manufacturing, oil-refining, waste water processing, chemical synthesis

 
 


Iron sulphate/ferrous sulphate, (FeSO4)
 
Common Name Green vitriol
Preparation Formed naturally by oxidation of sulphide minerals (iron sulphide)
Fe + H2SO4  FeSO4 + H2
 
Commercially,
2FeS2 + 7O2 + 2H2O  2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4
Uses
  • Treatment of iron deficiency
  • Colorant




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