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Subkingdom Embryophyta

Plants arising from multicellular embryos within female sex organs are grouped under the subkingdom Embryophyta. They get their nourishment from the parent plant. Sexual organs are surrounded by a sterile sheath. It is divided into two phyla, namely Bryophyta and Tracheophyta.

 

Plant Group

Plant Body

Vascular
System

Gametophyte and Sporophyte

Reproduction

Examples

Bryophytes (amphibians
of plant
kingdom)

Do not possess true stems, roots or leaves. Root like structures called rhizoids are present

No

• Dominant
gametophyte

• Dependent
sporophyte

• Spores

• Motile antheridium requires water to reach the archaegonium situated on the gametophyte

Liverworts
(Riccia
Marchantia)

Mosses (Funaria)

Pteridophytes

Plant body is differentiated into true root, stem and leaves

First terrestrial plants to develop vascular tissues

• Dominant
sporophyte

• Independent fragile gametophyte

• Motile antheridium fuses with archaegonium to form the zygote

These are terrestrial. Some ferns such as Salvinia and Azolla(biofertiliser) are aquatic. Some species of Pleopeltis and Lycopodia are epiphytic. Some species of Selaginella are xerophytic

Gymnosperms

Naked-seeded plant (produce seeds without a fruit)

Tracheophyte with xylem and phloem. Xylem has tracheids without vessels and phloem has sieve cells with no companion cells

• Dominant
sporophyte

• Highly reduced gametophyte

• Male gametophyte in pollen and female gametophyte in ovule

• Heterospory.

• Pollens in male cones are wind pollinated.

• Eggs and seeds in female cones

Cycas (cycad), conifers (pines, spruce), ginkgoales (Ginkgo)

Angiosperms

Produce enclosed seeds. They are flowering plants

Tracheophytes Xylem has vessels and phloem has sieve tubes and companion cells

• Dominant
sporophyte

• Highly reduced gametophyte.

• Male gametophyte in pollen and female gametophyte in ovule

• Heterospory

• Flowers with sepals, petals, stamens and carpels

• Stamen bears anthers which produce pollens

• Carpel encloses the ovules within ovary

• Ovules form the seed, and ovary forms the fruit after fertilisation.

Dicotyledons (dicots) and monocotyledons (monocots)

 

Phylum Tracheophyta includes vascular plants with xylem and phloem tissues. Tracheophyta is subdivided into four subphyla, namely Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida. Pteropsida is further divided into three classes, namely Filicinae, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae. Subphyla Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and class Filicinae together constitute Pteridophytes.





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