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Soil Erosion And Soil Conservation

The denudation and washing down of the soil cover is called soil erosion. The factors leading to soil erosion are:
  1. Deforestation
  2. Over-grazing
  3. Construction
  4. Mining
  5. Activities of natural forces such as glaciers, running water, wind etc. Some of the features thus formed are
    1. Gullies: deep channels caused by running water.
    2. Badland: very deep channels resulting in degradation of land and ravine formation found typically in the Chambal valley.
    3. Water flows over large areas such as a sheet called sheet erosion; this washes away the top soil over a large area.
    4. In areas of wind action, wind blows away the loose soil from flat or sloping land causing soil erosion
  6. Defective farming methods.

Some of the methods used for soil conservation are as follows:

  1. Contour ploughing—ploughing along contour lines to check the downward flow of water.
  2. Terrace cultivation—steps along the mountain slopes to restrict erosion. Found in Himalayas.
  3. Strip cropping—strips of grass left between crops which breaks the force of wind.
  4. Creating shelter belts—Rows of trees planted to restrict the movement of sand dunes or uninterrupted flow of wind.

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