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Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum

In a system of mutually colliding bodies, the total momentum along any given direction is conserved. In other words, the total final momentum of a system of colliding particles along any direction is equal to the total initial momentum of the particles along the same direction.
Consider a body A of mass m1 moving with velocity u1 along a given direction. Let this body collide with another body B moving with a lesser velocity u2, along the same direction.
Let them collide with each other for a short interval of time t seconds. After the collision, let v1 and v2 be the final velocities of A and B, respectively, along the same direction (Figure 3.4). Then,
m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2
i.e., the total momentum before and after collision is the same or the momentum is conserved.

Fundamental Forces in Nature

All living and non-living things can exert forces on each another. A boy pushing a toy car, a labourer pulling a cart, the force exerted by a load on the person supporting it, etc., are common examples of force. Any force in nature represents one of the fundamental forces mentioned below.


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