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Forestry and Agriculture

The forests are fast disappearing on the earth for various reasons and thus bringing about ecological imbalance. Forests are natural ecosystems having trees of different species and vegetation of different kinds and providing habitat to different species of animals.
Deforestation is occurring rapidly on earth. The forests of Amazon and the Western Ghats are fast depleting. Deforestation is nothing but clearance or clearing or removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use such as agriculture.
Deforestation occurs for various reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity.
Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of population.
A lot of diversity is fast disappearing between 1700 and 1995, the period of industrialisation. Most of the forest area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, pastures and fuel wood. Increase in population directly resulted in clearance of forest area to meet demand for food. Peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation.
The Britishers encouraged the production of commercial crops such as jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in the nineteenth century Europe, where food grains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production.
The colonial state thought forests were unproductive. They were considered to be wilderness that had to be brought under cultivation so that the land could yield agricultural products and revenue, and enhance the income of the state.

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