According to Article 214 of the Indian Constitution, there shall be a High Court for each state. However, the Parliament may, by law, establish a common High Court for two or more states and a union territory.
The British established three High Courts in India for the first time in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1862. At present, there are 21 High Courts in India.
There is one High Court for the states of Punjab and Haryana. Similarly, there in one High Court in Guwahati, Assam, looking after judicial cases from Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh.
In Karnataka besides the High Court in Bangalore, there is a mobile court also established in Dharwad and Gulbarga.
Appointment and Term of Judge The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of that state.
A judge of High Court holds office until he/she attains the age of 62 years.
Functions of the High Court
- The High Court has powers to issue orders and writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, certiorari, prohibition and quo warranto (Article 226).
- Superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in which it exercises its jurisdiction.
- To direct transfer of cases from the lower courts to the High Court.