The State Legislature is composed of the Governor and two Houses. The Upper House is called Legislative Council and the Lower House is called Legislative Assembly. In India, the states of Bihar, Karnataka, Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir are having a bi-cameral legislative and the rest of the states are uni-cameral.
Composition of the Legislative Assemblies
There shall be not more than 500 and not less than 60 members in a Legislative Assembly. However, there are exceptions to the limit of minimum numbers as five states of the Union have less than 60 members in their respective Legislative Assemblies. They are Sikkim (32), Goa (40), Mizoram (40), Pondichery (30) and Tripura (60).
Duration of State Legislature
- The Legislative Council of State shall not be dissolved, one-third of its members shall retire after every two years.
- The Legislative Assembly has a term of five years. However, term of assembly can be extended by the Parliament for a period of one year at a time during operation of National Emergency and not more than six months in any other case.
The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker
The speaker is elected along with the Deputy Speaker from among members of the State Assembly.
The proceedings of the House are carried on under the Chairmanship of the Speaker.
Powers and Functions of the Legislative Assembly
1. Legislative powers
- Makes laws related to the subjects in the State List and Concurrent List.
- Without the consent of the both the Houses and the Governor, no bill can become a law.
2. Financial powers
- The money bill has to be first presented in the Legislative Assembly.
- The Legislative council does not have the power to reject money bill. It can delay it for 14 days.
3. Administrative powers
- The State Executive is responsible to the Legislative Assembly.
- The Council of Ministers is accountable to the Legislative Assembly.
4. Electoral powers
- The Legislative Assembly has the power to elect the President, members of the Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council, Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Assembly.