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Classification of minerals

Features of Mining in India

  1. Open-cast mining and underground mining practices are found in India. Open cast mining is more widespread in India. Quarrying is a practice of mining stones or rocks used as building material from shallow depths below the surface.
  2. Some mines in India are labour intensive with limited technological inputs. However, mechanized mining which are capital and technology intensive are found in many places.

  1. The mining industry is mainly controlled by the public sector. Mining of coal and nuclear minerals are entirely controlled by the Government.

Importance of Mining in Indian Economy

  1. Mining provides sources of energy which are essential for any economy. Coal, petroleum, nuclear minerals such as uranium are the sources of energy which are required for industrial development and for domestic use.
  2. Industrial development has been possible in India due to the supply of mineral raw materials. Iron ore for iron and steel industry, bauxite ore for aluminium industry, limestone for cement industry are dependant on the large supply of mineral raw materials. The rich deposits of iron ore, coal, limestone, manganese in the Chotanagpur Plateau region had been the factors for setting up six major iron and steel plants and numerous ancillary industries in eastern India.
  3. Mining had been the major occupation of the local people in many parts of India. For a long time, Indian mining sector was labour-intensive. As a result, this sector had generated employment opportunities for people.
  4. In backward areas with inhospitable topography and climate, the presence of minerals has attracted settlement of population. Mining has led to economic development of many such areas, such as in the Chotanagpur Plateau and mineral belts of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh.
  5. The minerals are items of export. India’s foreign trade in minerals such as iron ore has developed the export earnings.
  6. Distribution of Minerals in India

Distribution of Minerals in India

Distribution of Fuel Minerals in India

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