Means of communication in India
Communication systems in India were established since historical times. With the development of science and technology, India has taken huge strides in the field of communication. The different means of communication that are found in India are post, telegraph, radio, television, cinema, newspaper, computer networks and telecommunication services. These are essential to connect villages, cities and towns in India which are located at great distances from each other. Moreover, in times of natural calamities and emergency, this network helps to keep the people connected.
Post and Telegraph System
The postal system was established in India in 1837 and the telegraph system in 1851. There are over 160000 post-offices in India, which not only distribute the postal mails but also render a number of services. Some of the services available in a post office are remittance of money from one place to another, acceptance of payment on behalf of the government, help carry insured parcels and provide savings bank services and other financial services. To ensure safe delivery of mail, the entire country has been divided into unique Postal Index Number (PIN) in 1972. Speed post and quick mail services were introduced. Telegraph services have declined with the introduction of the telecom services in India.
Telephone services in India started with the National Telex Service in 1963. Subsequently, telephone exchanges were spread across urban and rural areas of India. Automatic telephone services facilitated easy communication between people. The introduction of Subscribers Trunk Dialling (STD) and International Trunk Dialling (ISD) had revolutionised the telephone network in India. India has the largest telecom network in Asia.
Introduction of cellular phones and the extension of mobile phone technology in the interior parts of India have immensely changed the communication network in India.
Extension of computer facility throughout India has connected India with the rest of the world very easily. Internet connectivity, World Wide Web (www), emails or electronic mails, satellite services along with cellular phones are huge strides made in the field of communication in India.
Mass communication through radio, television, newspapers, magazines, films, etc., provide entertainment as well as build awareness amongst people about events happening across the world. All India Radio (Akashavani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national and regional languages. Doordarshan, the national television network in India, is one of the largest networks in the world. A variety of national and regional language and culture-based programmes are transmitted to a large cross-section of Indians. Newspapers in English, Hindi and about 100 vernacular languages and dialects are published in India. Indian feature films are renowned all across the world. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to check the content of Indian and foreign language films in India. These means of mass communication deal with entertainment, academic issues, general topics, political and sports events.