When a class is not used for creating objects, it is called an abstract class. The abstract class can act as a base class only. It is a layout abstraction in a program, and it allows a base on which several levels of inheritance can be created. The base classes act as a foundation of the hierarchical class. An abstract class is developed only to act as a base class and to inherit, and no objects of this class are declared. An abstract class gives a skeleton or a structure; using this, other classes are shaped. The abstract class is central and generally present at the starting of the hierarchy. The hierarchy of classes means a chain or group of classes that are involved with one another. In the last program, class A is an abstract class, because no instance (object) of class A is declared.
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