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Making Venn diagram

All books are pen

 

Conclusion:

Some pens are book

Some books are pen

 

No books are pen

 

Conclusion:

No pens are book
 

Some books are pen


Both book & pen
 

Conclusion:

Some pens are book

 

Some books are not pen


Conclusion:

Not conclusion

 

Now boldly statement of syllogism is divided in three part

  1. Positive
  2. Negative
  3. Possibly

Positive part

 

All and some
 

Example: All books are pen. All pens are copy.
 


In this type of question you have to prove statement wrong. If you not prove it this means that this is true.

 

Suppose from above diagram we have to find out ‘No book are copy’ but we can prove it wrong. So it statement is not followed.

 

Negative part

No book is pen

 

In negative part we have to prove the statement right if we cannot prove it this means this statement is followed or true.

 

Statement: All books are pen. No pen is copy.

 

Conclusion: No book is copy.
 

 

Or book, pen copy
 

For using above two statements we cannot prove above conclusion right. So it follows.

 

Possibly part

 

In this type of part we have to make all possibility and if one of the thing say that it is possible then our conclusion become true otherwise wrong.

 

Statement: All books are pen.

 

Conclusion: All pens are book possibly Or,

It is possible all pen are book.
 

 

Now there will be two possibilities. One is that both book and pen are overlap. When both are overlapping then our conclusion will be right, it will follow.

 

At least statement

This statement is same as some statement


Complementary pair

Some time pair of statement came like

  1. no boy are student and
  2. some boy are student

See carefully these are only two case and one of the must follow so generally when these type of question came we can mark one of them right.
 

Some not statement

“Some not’ is opposite to “All” type statement if “All” being true then some not being false, and vice versa.

 

Statement: Some A are B.

No B are C.

 

Conclusions: I. Some A are not C.

II. Some C are not A.
 

1st Conclusion is Some A are not C. for finding it we have to find out is it possible that All A re C if it is possible then conclusion is false otherwise true.
 

Now Venn Diagram is
 


 

We cannot prove that All A are C because some part of A which is b, is never be C.
 

Now from II: We have to prove that All C are A from following diagram-
 

 

So it cannot be follow.

 

So in short if it given some A re not B you try to prove it that All A are B. If you can prove it then Some “A are not B” will not follow and vice versa.
 

The theory above may be summarised as:
 

If the type of the given proposition is

Then the pictorial representation is

A

All S are P

Always Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\07.jpg

E

No S are P

Always Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\15.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

Some S are P

Either
Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\13.jpg

Some S are P

{Some S are not P}

Or,
Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\07.jpg

Some S are P

{All S are P}

Or,
Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\14.jpg

Some S are not P

{All S are P}

O

Some S are not P

Either
Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\13.jpg

Some S are not P

{Some S are P}

Or,
Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\14.jpg

Some S are not P

{All are P}

Or,

Description: C:\Users\muktika\Desktop\New folder\ayushiiiiifigureimage\15.jpg

Some S are not P

{No S are P}





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