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Tenses
 
Tense is the specific form of a verb that shows when the action it describes takes place, its continuance and completion.
 
There are three types of tenses-
(1) The Present Tense
(2) The Past Tense
(3) The Future Tense
 
Each tense has four cases to show exactly when the action takes place.
 
Present Tense

 

1.  Simple Present Tense
It is the ‘base’ form of the verb. (E.g. work, go) It is mainly used:
(a) to show actions that happen habitually.
E.g. I go to bed at nine o’ clock.
(b) to state general facts or universal truths.
E.g. the sun rises in the east.
(c) While quoting from books.
Eg. The notice says, ‘No Parking’.
The plurality of the noun influences the verb for examples.
I eat            We eat                  He eats                 She eats
Easy Recall: Subject + verb + object
E.g. He + eats + rice.
I + eat + fruits.

 

2. Present Continuous
The Second case in present tense is present continuous. The ‘ing’ form or the present participle (E.g. working, going) is used to denote actions that are going on at the time of speaking. It is also used while talking about things that happen often.
E.g.
I am eating a banana.
It is raining this morning.
My grandfather is always forgetting things.
Kishore is always reading novels.
Easy Recall: Subject + am / is /are + (verb + ing + object)
I + am + eat + ing + a banana
Kishore + is + always + read + ing + novels.
They + are + dance + ing + now.
(The use of am, is, are, depends on the plurality or singularity of the noun)

 

3. Present Perfect
It is used to talk about finished actions when we are thinking about their results in the present. But this tense should not be used with adverbs or adverbial phrases denoting past time (like yesterday, last week, Monday, etc.). This tense is indicated by adding have, had, has with the past participle of the verb.
E.g.
I have written the letter.
I have known him for a long time.
Easy Recall: Subject + have / has + past participle of the verb + object
I + have + written + the letter
I + have + known + him for a long time.
She + has + gone + home.
(Note: The use of have, has, depends on the singularity or plurality of the noun)

 

4. Present Perfect Continuous
It links the past action with the present. It is used to indicate an action that finished a short time ago; to show an indefinite action beginning at some time in the past and going on till the moment of speaking. The gerund form of verb is used here.
E.g.
I have been writing for hours.
She has been working in the garden.
Easy Recall: Subject + have, has +  been + verb + ing + object
I + have + been + write + ing for hours.
She + has + been + dance + ing every morning.
Jack + has + been + work + ing + in the garden.

Use the correct form of verb.

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Past Tense
 

1. Simple Past
It is used to indicate action completed at a certain time in the past.
Easy Recall: Subject + past form of the verb + object.
E.g.
I + wrote + a letter.
They + ate + food.
I + talked + to him.

 

2. Past continuous
It is used to indicate an action that was still going on at a certain time in the past. It is formed with was/were with the present participle.
Easy Recall: Subject + was/were + verb + ing + object
I + was + write + ing + a letter.
They + were + play + ing + football.
He + was + talk + ing + loudly.

 

3. Past Perfect
It is used to indicate the first action when two actions were taking place in the past. It is formed by adding ‘had’ with the past participle of the verb.
Easy Recall: Subject + had + past participle of the verb + object
I + had + written + a letter
He + had + finished + his work.
They + had + gone + home.

 

4. Past Perfect continuous
It is used to indicate an action that began before a certain point in the past and was still going on when something else happened.
Easy Recall: Subject + had + been + verb + ing + object.
I + had + been + write + ing + a letter when you came.
They + had + been + walk + ing + when it rained.
She + had + been + dance + ing + when the phone rang.

Use the correct form of words.

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Future Tense
 

1. Simple Future
It is used to indicate actions that are going to take place in the future. When there is no intention or arrangement, will or shall is used with the verb. When there is intention, the gerund form or infinitive form is used.
Easy Recall: Subject + shall/will + be + verb + ing + object
I + shall + be + write + ing + a letter.
She + will + be + do + ing + her homework.
He + will _+ be + write + ing + an article.

 

2. Future Continuous Tense
Used to say that an action will be going on or continuing at a particular time in future

  • I will be having a lunch party
  • This time tomorrow I will flying over the Indian ocean
  • I will be waiting for you at the airport

 

3. Future Perfect
It is used to express the completion of an action by a certain future time. The verb used will be in the past participle form.
Easy Recall: Subject + shall, will + have + past participle + object.
I + shall + have + written + the letter by the evening.
They + will + have + transferred + the furniture by tomorrow.
He + will + have + finished + the book the next day.

 

4. Future Perfect Continuous
It is used to express an action that may be continued up to a time in the future.
Easy Recall: Subject + shall, will + have been + verb + ing + object
I + shall + have been + study + ing + for medicine, for two years by then.

Use the correct form of words.

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