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The origins of other civilized societies are so embedded in myths and miracles that it is almost impossible to guess at the underlying reality. The Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven and essential to producing a good harvest (the main source of the extractable surplus), but we know little of how he persuaded his subjects to accept his semi-magical role and material extraction rights. The Japanese emperor was descended from the Sun God, Amaterasu, but whether he achieved his surplus income by charisma, spiritual aura, or force, we can only guess. When Buddha sat under the Bhodi tree, Hindu society was already a thousand years old, and he was not concerned with organizing society – except perhaps for the monks of the Sangha – but with escape from the cycle of life and human existence. The Mayans, Incas and Aztecs all have had their creation myths, but these tell us equally little about how their societies actually came into being. In the absence of reliable sources, we can only guess at the process of societal formation. No society, though, could avoid extracting surplus from the producers for the use of the organizers. Even the most primitive hunting and gathering bands had their chiefs and matriarchs, weapon and tool makers, and shamans or witch doctors who had to be supported, and their part-time services needed subsidy by the rest. No doubt the dominant elite emerged from among these specialists, especially when settled agricultureproduced a larger surplus, but the process is beyond modern knowledge.
Tool makers of society were-