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G-Matic Implications Of Uses Of Adjectives

 

The use of adjective, whether it is predicative or attributive, has some important G-matic implications.

  1. Predicative adjectives emphasize description while attributive adjectives make description subordinate.
    If you closely observe, you will understand that when we use predicative adjective, the very purpose of the sentence is to describe. When we use attributive adjectives, we give priority to the subject – action relation rather than description.

Study the following examples, in which the adjective sophisticated is used in both uses.

  • The programs used for credit risk management are sophisticated.
  • Sophisticated programs need consistent technological up-gradation.

In the above sentence, the very purpose of the first sentence, in which the adjective is used predicatively, is to describe the programs, whereas this description becomes subordinate in the second sentence which focuses on what is needed by the programs.

This distinction is very important in selecting the choices in G-matic sentence correction.

Study the following examples to understand this concept.

? A study that is biased is likely to give in unrepresentative results.

*A biased study is likely to give in unrepresentative results.

Though both the sentences are grammatically correct, the second sentence is a better choice because the purpose of the sentence is not to describe the study, but to talk about what kind of study gives what kind of results. Thus, the second sentence is preferable. Furthermore, the second sentence is concise.

? Some peaceful people can turn violent because of the exposure to certain stimuli.

*Some people, who are peaceful, can turn violent because of the exposure to certain stimuli.

In the above examples, the first sentence (with attributive adjective) makes the description of people subordinate. However, the contrast to be brought out makes description an important consideration. In such instances, predicative adjective is preferable. Thus, the second sentence, though wordy, brings out the contrast better and so, is preferable to the first one.

  1. The attributive adjective is an integral part of the noun phrase and this might result in reference problems in the use of pronouns.
    When an adjective is used attributively, it becomes an inseparable part of the noun phrase and the whole noun phrase functions as an indivisible unit. This may result in illogical sense with regards to pronoun reference.

Study the following example.

* Tall persons can usually make better basketball players than those who are short.

The pronouns those needs a logical antecedent. 

The antecedent in the sentence is persons. However, it is with attributive adjective tall. Since the attributive adjective is an integral part of the noun phrase, those can refer to tall students. Thus, the sense of the sentence is expressed below.

* Tall persons can usually make better basketball players than tall persons who are short.

This is illogical! Thus, we can correct the above sentences by avoiding either attributive adjective or pronoun. The following are the corrected versions of the above sentence.

* Tall persons can usually make better basketball players than short persons.

* Persons who are tall can usually make better basketball players than those who are short.

Example
Instead of innovatively facing the competition from electronic books, those published traditionally are being protected by book publishers through price increase of the electronic book versions of their publications.
A. those published traditionally are being protected by book publishers through price increase
B. the traditionally published ones are being protected by book publishers by increasing the price
C. book publishers are protecting the traditionally published ones by increasing the price
D. book publishers are protecting the traditionally published books by increasing the price
E. book publishers are protecting the traditional, published books by increasing the price
Solution
Explanation
The given sentence contains the subject those published traditionally. This noun phrase creates two problems. Firstly, the logical antecedent for those is books. But, the noun phrase with attributive adjective (electronic books) cannot function as the antecedent. Secondly, The subject (those referring to books) cannot be logically modified by the initial prepositional phrase. (this error is dangling modifier error, which we will discuss in the next chapter.)
Option A: the sentence is with pronoun reference problem and with modification error.
Option B: this option also has the pronoun reference problem with another pronoun ones. This has no logical antecedent in the rest of the sentence.
Option C: though the subject used is logical, the pronoun reference problem with ones persists.
Option D: correct. This option corrects the reference problem by using the relevant noun phrase
traditionally published books. The subject is also modified logically by the preceding prepositional phrase.
Option E: though the sentence is correct from reference aspects, the use of adjective traditional in the place of traditionally gives unintended meaning.

 

 

Example
The first woman to receive a Nobel Prize and the first person to receive two Nobel prizes, Madame Curie’s death was attributed to anemia but today we know her dying from exposure to radio-active substances.
A. Madame Curie’s death was attributed to anemia but today we know her dying
B. Madame Curie’s death was attributed to anemia, and today we know that she died
C. Madame Curie was thought to have died of anemia, whereas today, we know her death
D. Madame Curie was thought to be dying from anemia, while today we know that she died
E. Madame Curie was thought to have died of anemia, whereas today we know she died
Solution
Explanation: the sentence has two appositives both of which are to modify the noun following. However, the subject phrase Madame Curie’s death cannot logically be modified by the appositives. Thus, the sentence is incorrect as it is.
Option A: the initial appositives do not modify the subject.
Option B: besides the modification problem, the conjunction and does not bring out the intended contrast.
Option C: in spite of the correction of the modification problem, the structure used in the later part (we know her death) cannot be used logically to bring out the contrast. The required structure is we know that she died from exposure to radioactive substances.
Option D: though the problems discussed above are corrected, the use of to be dying, with the continuity sense, cannot be logically used to bring out the intended contrast.
Option E: correct. This option corrects both modification problems and the structure problems.

 






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