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Adjectives are words that describe noun or noun equivalents.

Study the following examples

  • Many human activities are unfortunately disrupting the fragile eco-systems.
  • Unlike other organs, liver has two sources of blood supply: from heart and from digestive tract.

In the above examples, modifiers are italicized for your identification.

It is strongly advisable to go through the section adjectives in the chapter Parts of Speech and Word Groups and complete, if you have not already done so, the related down-to-earth practices.


Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.

When it describes an adjective or an adverb, an adverb generally gives the degree of that adjective or adverb. But when the adverb describes the verb, it generally talks about the time, the place, the frequency, or the manner of the verb.

Study the following examples to know how the adverbs describe various elements of the sentence.

  • The situation is very tricky. (The adverb very is giving the degree of the adjective tricky, which modifies the noun the situation.)
  • The kid talked very fast. (The adverb fast tells us how the kid talked and the adverb very tells us how fast he talked.)
  • The representative of the company spoke evasively. (The adverb evasively describes the manner in which the person spoke.)
  • Our supervisor always blames others. (The adverb always gives the frequency of the verb blames.)

Though adjectives and adverbs, both of which are just single words, serve the function of description in simple sentences, sentences with longer and complex ideas need word groups (phrases and clauses) to serve the function of description. Thus, you should have a clear understanding of adjectival phrases and clauses as well as adverbial phrases and clauses. These concepts are dealt with in detail in the chapter 3.

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