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Illustrated Examples For Application Of Strategies

 

Example

The influence of Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was very pervasive and was thus proclaimed to be ‘the first citizen of Athens’ by some contemporary historians.
A. The influence of Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was pervasive
B. Pericles’s influence, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was pervasive
C. Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, had pervasive influence
D. Pericles, who is the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, has a pervasive influence
E. The influence of Pericles, who was the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war and which was pervasive,

 

Step 1

The influence of Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was very pervasive and was thus proclaimed to be ‘the first citizen of Athens’ by some contemporary historians.


In the above sentence, there is additional infomation . If we ignore the sentence, the following is the basis structure.

The influence of Pericles was very pervasive and was thus proclaimed to be the ‘the first citizen of Athens’ by some contemporary historians.


Step 2

When we compare the initial underlined part, we understand that we need to select between the influence of Pericles and Pericles.


As per the list of conspicuous error clues, the and after the underlined part is followed by a predicate. The subject of the sentence the influence of Pericles does not match this subject. The logical subject for this is Pericles.


Now we can eliminate options with the influence as the subject.

  • The influence of Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was very pervasive and was thus proclaimed to be ‘the first citizen of Athens’ by some contemporary historians.

A. The influence of Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was pervasive ()

B. Pericles’s influence, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, was pervasive ()

C. Pericles, the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, had pervasive influence

D. Pericles, who is the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war, has a pervasive influence

E. The influence of Pericles, who was the most prominent in the ancient Athens during Peloponnesian war and which was pervasive, ()


Step 3

Now again compare the remaining options. When we study both the options, we understand that they differ in tense.

By studying the context, we understand that present is incorrect. Thus, we can eliminate option D.

Thus, the correct option is option C.
 

Example
  • Entering a progressive family as an indentured slave and tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only an enslaved person but for any woman of her time.

A. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only(
B. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for
C. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education not only for
D. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education not only for
E. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education for not only

 

Step 1

Entering a progressive family as an indentured slave and tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only an enslaved person but for any woman of her time.


In the above sentence, if the additional infomation present in the participle phrases and in the relative clause is ignored, the basic sentence is the following.


Phillis Wheatley received an unprecedented education for not only an enslaved person but for any woman of her time.

You might have observed that the sentence is with not only… but also. This is a conspicuous error clue for parallelism.


Step 2

When we compare the options you can understand that the not only … but also combination differs in the options. We can understand that the option is testing parallelism. First understand the parallelism requirement; but (also) is followed by a for phrase, and not only should be followed by a similar phrase.


Entering a progressive family as an indentured slave and tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only an enslaved person but for any woman of
her time.

A. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only ()

B. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for ()

C. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education not only for

D. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education not only for

E. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education for not
only (
)

We have eliminated even option B because this option does not have the required not only


Step 3

Now compare the initial phrase of the remaining options. You can see that two different forms (tutoring and tutored) of the same word are present in the options. This is an indication of faulty parallelism.


As we discussed in Chapter 12, we need to identify two sentences that constitute the compound sentences. The following are those sentences.


Entering a progressive family as an indentured slave, Phillis Wheatley received an unprecedented education…

Tutoring/tutored in classival literature, Phillis Wheatley received an unprecedented education…


Now we should decide which is correct from between the two words (tutoring and tutored). Was she tutoring or was she tutored? You can understand that tutored is the correct word. Then eliminate the wrong option.

  • Entering a progressive family as an indentured slave and tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only an enslaved person but for any woman of her time.

A. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for not only ()

B. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education for ()

C. tutoring in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education not only for ()

D. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who would later become the first black woman to be published, received an unprecedented education not only for

E. tutored in classical literature, Phillis Wheatley, who is to become the first black woman published, received an unprecedented education for not only ()

Thus, the correct option is Option D. You can also solve this question by concentrating other error. You can surely try that also.
 

Example

During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a new planet.
A. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented
B. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing
C. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems, during the evolution of solar system, to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented
D. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented
E. The Jupiter, with its gravitation, seems to interfere, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing

 

Step 1

If we ignore the additional infomation in the initial prepositional phrase and in the prepositional phrase after the noun asteroids, the basic subject-predicate group and thus the basic infomation of the sentence can be identified.

During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a new planet.

The Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of the asteroids and prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a new planet.

Now that you have understood the basic sense of the sentence, we can go to the next step.


Step 2

By comparing the options, we can identify the word order is different in some options. The error likely to be tested is the misplaced modifiers. We should identify whether the prepositional phrase during the solar evolution modifies the verb seems or the infinitive to have interfered. We can understand that the phrase should modify the infinitive. If this phrase is at the beginning of the sentence, it incorrectly modifies the verb seems.

Eliminate all other options accordingly.

  • During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a new planet.

A. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented ()

B. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing

C. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems, during the evolution of solar system, to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter and prevented

D. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented ()

E. The Jupiter, with its gravitation, seems to interfere, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing


Step 3

Now by comparing the last part of the underlined portion, we can guess that the testing point is verb and verb v/s verb + participle. We can understand that the interference automatically results in prevention. The second action in the sentence is not an individual action. Thus, use of participle is correct.

You can now eliminate all verb and verb constructions.

  • During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented the asteroids from coalescing into a new planet.

A. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented ()

B. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems to have interfered, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing

C. The Jupiter’s gravitation seems, during the evolution of solar system, to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter and prevented ()

D. During the evolution of solar system, the Jupiter’s gravitation seems to interfere with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and prevented ()

E. The Jupiter, with its gravitation, seems to interfere, during the evolution of solar system, with the free movement of asteroids in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, preventing


As we are with two more options left, let us repeat the step 2 and step 3.

The difference between the options is to interfere and to have interfered. The plain infinitive refers to present or future while perfect infinitive refers to past. In the context of the sentence, perfect infinitive is correct.


Thus, we can eliminate option E and thus, the correct option is Option B.

Now that you are equipped with all infomation and strategies, you can start working on G-matic Practice in Part 3 of the book.





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