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Redundancy

Redundancy is the problem of style in which a word, phrase or even a clause is used unnecessarily. The redundant word or phrase adds nothing to the meaning of the sentence.

Study the following sentences to understand this concept.

? Illiterate voters who have never attended school are not likely to make wise decisions in electing leaders for governments.

In this sentence, the word illiterate and the clause (who have never attended school) express the same idea. Thus, the clause is redundant. The following is the corrected version of the above sentence.

* Illiterate voters are not likely to make wise decisions in electing leaders for governments.

 ? Because of the fact that consensus of opinion is not possible among divergent groups, we should solve this problem carefully.

In this sentence, the phrase because of the fact that is not adding anything more than what the conjunction because adds. Moreover, the word consensus means unity of opinion. The use of the phrase of opinion adds nothing new to the sentence and thus, the phrase is redundant. The following is the corrected version of the sentence.

* Because consensus is not possible among divergent groups, we should solve this problem carefully.


Let us look into this problem of redundancy more closely.


Grammatical Redundancy

The problem of redundancy may occur grammatically. Some words present in the sentence are grammatical words, such as conjunctions, that repeat the idea expressed by some grammar other words in the sentence.


Look at the following sentences to understand this concept.

? Both ruling party members as well as the opposition party members supported the bill for reservation.

The conjunction both and as well as express the same idea and thus one of them is grammatically redundant. The error can be corrected by avoiding the use of one of them. Thus, the following are the corrected versions.

* Ruling party members as well as the opposition party members support the bill for reservation.

* Both ruling party members and the opposition party members support the bill for reservation.

? Most of the workers’ unions opposed the new direction, but, the management, however, wanted to implement the new code.

* Most of the workers’ unions opposed the new direction; the management, however, wanted to implement the new code.

* Most of the workers’ unions opposed the new direction, but the management wanted to implement the new code.

Grammatical redundancy may occur not only because of the repetition of grammar words but also because of the repetition of sentence parts that can be omitted without causing any ambiguity.

Study the following to understand this concept.

? The process of reconciliation between different groups is crucial and it is to be undertaken cautiously.

In this sentence, two main clauses are connected by and. The subject for both the sentences is same and, thus, the repetition of subject by using it in the second clause is unnecessary repetition and thus the word is redundant. The corrected sentence can be as follows.

* The process of reconciliation between different groups is crucial and is to be undertaken cautiously.


Vocabulary Redundancy

 

Sometimes, a word or phrase may unnecessarily repeat the idea or concept present in another word.

Example

The word repay means, as per dictionary, to pay back. If you use the expression repay back in a sentence, the word back is repeating the sense already present in the base word. This kind of redundancy can be easily recognized by comparing various options in a G-matic sentence correction question.


Study the following examples for further understanding of this concept.

? By studying the past history of a company, we can, to some extent, estimate the future prospects.

 * By studying the history of a company, we can, to some extent, estimate the prospects.

? Both infrastructure development and economic development are mutually interdependent.

* Infrastructure development and economic development are interdependent

* Infrastructure development and economic development are mutually dependent.

Unnecessary Modification

Sometimes we tend to use descriptions that are not needed. This is sometimes intended for emphasis.
 

Example

If we say hot lava, the use of hot is not needed, for lava could be only hot, and there is no possibility of cold lava. This kind unnecessary modification is surely redundant.


Look at the following examples to understand this concept.

·  ? The share price declined down to its lowest value in the last two years.

* The share price declined to its lowest value in the last two years.

An exhaustive list of redundancies and the possible improvements are given in appendix.
 

Example
Fibromas, a benign tumor that does not harm human bodies and that are composed of fibrous tissue, grow anywhere in the body, arising from mesenchyme, another fibrous tissue.
A. Fibromas, a benign tumor that does not harm human bodies and that are composed of fibrous tissue, grow anywhere in the body, arising from mesenchyme, another fibrous tissue.
B. A benign tumor that is composed of fibrous tissue, fibromas grow anywhere in the body, arising from mesenchyme, another fibrous tissue.
C. Fibromas, benign tumors that are harmless to human bodies and composed of fibrous tissues, grows anywhere in the body, arising from mesenchyme, another fibrous tissue.
D. A fibroma is a benign tumor that is harmless and that grows anywhere in the body which arises from mesenchyme, another fibrous tissue.
E. Fibromas, benign tumors composed of fibrous tissue, grow anywhere in the body from another fibrous tissue mesenchyme.
Solution
Explanation: The relative clauses that modify the noun benign tumor are parallel, but the clause that does not harm…) is redundant because it repeats the idea present in the word benign. Moreover, the singular noun a benign tumor does not agree with the plural noun fibromas, which is plural. In case of confusion, the plural verbgrow hints at the plural nature of the noun. Thus, the sentence lacks noun – number
consistency and has redundancy problems.
Option A: the option is with the noun-consistency and redundancy problems.
Option B: though the problem of redundancy is taken care of, the consistency problem with nouns persists. A plural noun benign tumors is needed to modify plural fibromas.
Option C: though the option corrects noun-consistency problem, it retains the redundancy problem by using the relative clause that are harmless to human bodies and the verb grows does not agree with the plural subject fibromas.
Option D: the relative clause (which arises from mesenchyme…) is misplaced. Thus, this option is
incorrect.
Option E: correct. This option corrects all the errors stated above, and expresses the idea concisely and precisely.

 

 

Redundancy

  1. When the company launched the product for the first time, many critics doubted its success.
  2. Companies use popular celebrities as brand ambassadors to popularize the products they produce.
  3. The purpose of the research is intended to study the effects of pollutants on the fragile biome of the Pacific Ocean.
  4. With the satellite broadband services being available to rural households, more and more companies are now offering many innovative features.
  5. Even though the science has advanced a lot since the establishment of the concept of gravitation, but even today scientists cannot develop a theory that explains about gravitation equally well on macroscopic, microscopic and sub-atomic particles.
  6. Because of the availability of free software for which they do not need to pay, many websites are now offering many innovative features that were not available earlier.
  7. Some Daguerreotypes are considered as master pieces of photography and they have huge market value.
  8. The Boston Latin School, a public school established in Boston in 1635, is both the first public school as well as the oldest existing school in the United States of America.
  9. Despite the development of more advanced ignition systems, the primitive matchlock ignition system of early guns was, however, in use even until about 1720 because of its simplicity of design, wide availability and low cost of production.
  10. Green economics, a concept of economics which considers any economy as a part of ecosystem, finds eco-friendly production measures to be more preferable than production measures that interfere with sensitive ecosphere.

 Keys

  1. When the company launched the product, many critics doubted its success.
    The word launch embraces the meaning of the phrase ‘for the first time, making the phrase redundant. Thus the corrected version should remove the phrase.
  2. Companies use celebrities as brand ambassadors to popularize their products.
    The word celebrities means people who are popular. Thus, the word popular is redundant. Thus, the corrected version should remove that word. Moreover, the expression the products they produce is also repetitive. Thus, this should be corrected.
  3. The purpose of the research is / the research is intended to study the effects of pollutants on the fragile biome of the Pacific Ocean.
     
    The noun purpose and the verb is intended are conveying the same sense. Thus, the redundancy can be removed by using just one of them.
  4. With the satellite broadband services available to rural households, more and more companies are now offering many innovative features.
    In the given sentence, the same sense is conveyed even after removing being from the sentence and thus, this word is redundant. Thus, the redundancy can be removed by removing being.
  5. Even though the science has advanced a lot since the establishment of the concept of gravitation, even today scientists cannot develop a theory that explains gravitation equally well on macroscopic, microscopic and sub-atomic particles.
    The use of two conjunctions (even though and but) to combine is incorrect. One of the conjunctions should be removed. About after explain is also redundant.
  6. Because of the availability of free software, many websites are now offering many innovative features.
    Both relative clauses repeat the ideas present in the words free and innovative. Thus, both relative clauses are redundant. Thus, the problem of redundancy can be solved by removing both the relative clauses.
  7. Some Daguerreotypes are considered master pieces of photography and have huge market value.
    The expression consider as is redundant expression because as is not needed. Moreover, the subject they is repeating the subject already present in the first clause. Thus, this results in grammatical redundancy. The correction can be made by removing as and they.
  8. The Boston Latin School, a public school established in Boston in 1635, is both the first public school and the oldest existing schoolthe first public school as well as the oldest existing school in the United States of America.
    The use of both and as well as together is redundancy. Thus, the corrected sentence should use only of them.
  9. Despite the development of more advanced ignition systems, the primitive matchlock ignition system of early guns was in use even until about 1720 because of its simplicity of design, wide availability and low cost of production.
    The use of despite and however together is redundant. Thus the correct sentence should contain only one of them. In the given sentence, removal of however is easy and convenient.
  10. Green economics, a concept of economics which considers any economy a part of ecosystem, finds eco-friendly production measures to be preferable to production measures that interfere with sensitive ecosphere.
    Use of as with consider is redundant. Moreover, the word more repeats the idea present in preferable. We need to use preferable to, rather than preferable than.

 





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