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V. G-Matic Violation Of Word Order 

The usual word order presented in the basic structures is to be followed in usual cases. However, G-matic language violates the usual word order in many instances. This violation is needed for three simple reasons: to remove the ambiguity, to give logical sense and to place the other elements correctly.

 

Let me illustrates the above concepts with examples which are likely to be tricky from common usage perspective, but quite justified from G-matic perspective.

To Remove Ambiguity

Many G-matic sentences violate the usual word order to remove the ambiguity.

To understand this concept, first look at the usual word order in the following sentence.

* I make the infomation available. (Subject + verb + object + object complement.)

The word order in the above sentence is the conventional word order that has been given in the last sentence pattern. If this word order is changed, the sentence becomes questionable.

? I make available the infomation. (the violation of usual word order is questionable, and in fact, incorrect.)

Study the following sentence, in which additional infomation is added to the noun infomation. The following sentence is with the usual word order as given in the first word order.

? I make the infomation that helps the students answer GMAT sentence correction questions available.

Now the question is whether the right word order is right in this sentence. The word available is separated from the related verb make by so long a phrase that you may think of GMAT sentence correction questions available rather than make available, right? The sentence, though with correct word order, is without clarity. What was wrong earlier is now correct. Look at the following corrected sentence.

* I make available the infomation that helps students answer GMAT sentence correction questions.

This is justified violation of word order in G-matic sentences! That is to bring clarity to the sense to be given in the sentence.

One more example will surely help you I think.

 

The university has changed the curriculum to help students face the changing business environment better.

It is not clear whether the word better is talking about facing the changing business environment or to help.

? The university has changed the curriculum to help students better face the changing business environment. (Is it help better or face better? Again not clear.)

? The university has changed the curriculum to help better students face the business environment. (This time, is it help better or better students? Not clear again!)

* The university has changed the curriculum to better help students face the changing business environment.

The last sentence expresses clearly, without any possibility of misinterpretation, the intended the meaning. This is how the usual word order is violated in a justified manner!

Example
To expand business in culturally diverse countries, multinationals should make available effective administrators to the branches operating in local markets and should be willing to serve, under the conditions of scarcity, local markets using local human resources.
A. willing to serve, under the conditions of scarcity, local markets using local human resources
B. willing, under conditions of scarcity, to serve local markets using local human resources
C. willing to serve local markets, under conditions of scarcity, with local human resources
D. willing to serve local markets with local human resources under conditions of scarcity
E. willing to serve local markets with local hunman resources under conditions of such scarcity.
Solution
Explanation: the position of prepositional phrase under conditions of scarcity seems odd. But if we keep it at any other place, ambiguity will be resulted. Thus given sentence is correct as it is.
Option A: correct. This option is the best one.
Option B: the position of prepositional phrase creates ambiguity in modification; it is not clear whether it is modifying preceding verb willing or the following infinitive to serve.
Option C: the ambiguity persists. The prepositional phrase may modify preceding infinitive serve or the verb should be willing.
Option D: even the end position of the prepositional phrase is still with ambiguity of modification. Now, the prepositional phrase may modify human resources, to serve or the verb will be willing.
Option E: besides the ambiguity problem, the option has reference problem; the use of such scarcity requires an explicit mentioning of the noun scarcity in the earlier part of the sentence. Without such reference, the word such cannot be used.


To Give Logical Sense

Sometimes, the usual word order may give unintended or illogical sense. To make the sentence logical, test makers need to follow odd word order.
Study the following sentences one of which is with usual word order, but questionable.

? Molybdenum is used as a lubricant and as a nutritional supplement in trace amounts.

* Molybdenum is used as a lubricant and, in trace amounts, as a nutritional supplement.

The difference between the two sentences, you might have observed, the word order, which is a bit odd in the second sentence. The phrase in trace amounts sounds more natural at the end. There is a justification for this odd positioning.

If it is used at the end, it applies even to the first part and gives the sense that molybdenum is used as a lubricant in trace amounts. This is surely illogical. When you use something as a lubricant, you use it in large amounts, but not in trace amounts. To remove this sense, it is necessary to change the word order and use commas accordingly. You will study this topic more thoroughly in the chapter parallel structure.

Of course, one more correction is also possible with usual word order.

* Molybdenum is used as a nutritional supplement in trace amounts and as a lubricant.

Example
The evolution of any language is influenced by the most dominant culture of the region prevailing in and by the foreign influences to some extent.
A. prevailing in and by the foreign influences to some extent.
B. it prevails in and, to some extent, by the foreign influences.
C. the language prevails in and it is influenced by foreign influences to some extent.
D. the language prevails in and, to some extent, by foreign influences.
E. the language prevails in and by influences that are foreign to some extent.
Solution
Explanation: the position of the prepositional phrase to some extent is problematic. By virtue of its position, the modifier gets related to both main clauses, giving a sense that the evolution of any language is influenced by most dominant culture… to some extent. This sense is not logical as the evolution of the language is mostly dominated by dominant culture. Moreover, the modifier phrase cannot logically refer to the preceding nouns.
Option A: the position of the prepositional phrase to some extent gives illogical sense. The option has a problem of modification by particle phrase prevailing in.
Option B: the pronoun it may refer to either evolution or language. This results in ambiguity.
Option C: the main clause after and is not only with ambiguous it but also with redundancy problem as it unnecessarily repeats the expression it is influenced.
Option D: correct. this is the best option as it removes the problem of ambiguity of pronoun and also the problem of illogical sense by placing prepositional phrase immediately after and.
Option E: the sentence structure changes the meaning and does not give the intended and needed sense.

To Place the Other Elements Correctly

Sometimes, if usual word order is followed, some parts of sentences, such as prepositional phrases, relative clauses or adverbials, become misplaced. To avoid this problem, the test makers violate the usual word order and resort to convoluted order.

Study the following sentences carefully.

*You should study the following sentences carefully. (subject + verb + object +adverbial – this sentence is with usual word order.)

* You should study the following sentences carefully that illustrate this error.

*You should carefully study the following sentences that illustrate this error.

As per the word order conventions we have studied in this chapter itself, the relative clause must be present immediately after the noun it modifies. If we place the adverbial carefully in the usual place, the relative clause is not correctly placed. To remove this problem, they need to place the adverbial at odd place. This violation is also quite justified.

Despite the many instances of this odd word order, the test makers are not sadistic to give such sentences solely with the intent of troubling you. All the odd word order combinations in G-matic sentences are quite justified.

 

Violation of usual word order
Study the following sentences carefully and identify whether the word order violations are justified or not.

  1. In football, the duties of a coach vary depending on the level he is coaching at and the country he is coaching in.
  2. A keen self-critic, Thomas Hardy scrupulously evaluated the scripts he had written.
  3. Some humanitarian people from Northern states were, as early as 1830, pressurizing the Congress to abolish slavery.
  4. Known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, Elton Mayo proposed, after his research at Harvard, that informal groups formed at work have strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group.
  5. Making it about a hundred times older than previously thought, the Simian Immunodeficiency Syndrome, which is closely related to HIV, is reported to have evolved at least 32,000 years ago.

 Keys

  1. In football, the duties of a coach vary depending on the level he is coaching at and the country he is coaching in.
    If we place the prepositional phrase at usual position, it will become a misplaced modifier. Thus, the current position is justified.
  2. A keen self-critic, Thomas Hardy scrupulously evaluated the scripts he had written.
    The adverbial scrupulously is oddly placed. But, if it is kept at the end, it will not be clear whether he wrote scrupulously or evaluated scrupulously. The present position removes this ambiguity. If it is kept at the beginning, it intrudes with the appositive modification. Thus, this is a justified violation of word order.
  3. Some humanitarian people from Northern states were, as early as 1830, pressurizing the Congress to abolish slavery.
    The usual position of the modifier as early as 1830 is at the end of the sentence. If we place it there, it will not be clear whether it modifies to abolish slavery or pressurizing the Congress. Thus, the violation of usual word order is justified.
  4. Known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, Elton Mayo proposed, after his research at Harvard, that informal groups formed at work have strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group.
    The position of the prepositional phrase, though awkward, is quite justified here. If it is kept before the subject Elton Mayo, it might modify either the preceding modifier phrase known as… Movement, or the later main clause. If it is kept at the end of the sentence, it modifies the verb in the subordinate clause informal … in a group.Thus, the sentence is with justified violation of the word order.
  5. The Simian Immunodeficiency Syndrome, which is closely related to HIV, is reported to have evolved at least 32,000 years ago making it about a hundred times older than previously thought.
    In this sentence, the word order violation is not justified. The position of the modifier phrase making… thought in the present position gets connected to the verb is reported. It is not because of reporting that was so old. It is because of its evolution that long ago. Thus, the best position for the sentence is the usual end position.





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