Read the following passage and answer the questions.
The Constitution guarantees every citizen the fundamental right to equality. Yet after 50 years of independence, just one perusal of the female infant mortality figures, the literacy rates and the employment opportunities for women is sufficient evidence that discrimination exists. Almost predictably, this gender bias is evident in our political system as well. In the 13th Lok Sabha, there were only 43 women MPs out of a total of 543, it is not a surprising figure, for never has women’s representation in Parliament been more than
10 per cent. Historically, the manifestos of major political parties have always encouraged women's participation. It has been merely a charade. So, women’s organizations, denied a place on merit, opted for the last resort, a reservation of seats for women in parliament and State Assemblies. Parties, which look at everything with a vote bank in mind, seemed to endorse this. Alas, this too was a mirage.
But there is another aspect also. At a time when caste is the trump card, some politicians want the bill to include further quotas for women from among minorities and backward castes. There is more to it. A survey shows that there is a general antipathy towards the bill. It is actually a classic case of doublespeak: in public, politicians were endorsing women's reservation but in the backrooms of Parliament, they were busy sabotaging it. The reasons are clear: Men just don't want to vacate their seats of power.
According to the passage, political parties have mostly in mind-