Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Long ago goods were manufactured by craftsmen, who were skilled workmen. A craftsman was proud of each article he made. He spent a long time in making it and took great care over its manufacture, and people paid a high price for it when it was finished. All the luxurious Persian carpets, the beautiful Chinese pottery and the hand-made laces of certain European countries were made this way. But these articles were bought only by the rich. Poorer people had to be satisfied with goods that were roughly and cheaply made.
When the population of Europe increased, there was a demand for goods of better quality. These goods had to be produced in factories and workshops where hundreds of workers were employed. The invention of the steam engine helped manufacturers by giving them cheaper power to work their machines. Machines took the place of men. Production was increased. People were able to buy articles of good quality at low prices. The age of mass production means the manufacture of a large number of identical articles by the use of machinery. Cars, radios and cameras are examples of the many types of articles that are mass produced today.
A conveyor belt plays a large part in mass production. By means of the conveyor belt which moves continuously, articles are conveyed from point to point during the various stages in their manufacture. A lot of time is saved in this way.
A visit to a factory is an interesting experience. Take, for example, a biscuit factory. The whole process of biscuit-making is done by machinery. First of all, the ingredients such as flour, sugar, fat and water are put into a mixing machine. The mixture comes out of the mixing machine in the form of dough and is passed on to machine that processes the dough into moulds.
In these moulds the dough is given that shape of biscuit. Then the biscuits are carried by a conveyor belt to the oven. As they move though the oven they are slowly cooked. When they are cool, they are taken off the moving belt by workers and packed into boxes. The boxes are weighed, made air-tight and wrapped. Then they are ready to leave the factory.
Goods produced in factories and workshops were cheaper because