Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
It is difficult to reconcile the ideas of different schools of thought on the question of education. Some people maintain that pupils of school should concentrate on a narrow range of subjects which will benefit them directly in their subsequent careers. Others contend that they should study a wide range of subjects so that they not only have the specialized knowledge necessary for their chosen careers but also sound general knowledge about the world they will have to work and live in. Supporters of the first theory state that the greatest contributions to civilization are made by those who are expert in their trade or profession. Those on the other side say that, unless they have a broad general education, the experts will be too narrow in their outlook to have sympathy with their fellows of a proper sense of responsibility towards humanity as a whole.
“School of thought” can best be explained as: