Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
It was during one of the most dreadful small pox epidemics in England that Edward Jenner, a country doctor, made a discovery which was to alter the course of history. Jenner noticed that the disease seldom struck those who lived in a rural areas and worked around cattle. Most farmers and dairy workers had contracted cowpox and had recovered with nothing more serious than a pustule which left a scar. This observation led Dr. Jenner to think: why not vaccinate people with cowpox to protect them from smallpox? On May 14, 1876, Dr. Jenner took a healthy boy, James Philips, to a diary maid, Sarah Nelmes, who had a cowpox pustule on her hand resulting from an infection from her master’s cow. Dr. Jenner made two shallow cuts on James Phillips arm and inoculated them with matter taken from the cow pox sore. A pustule developed on the boy’s arm formed a scab and heated. In July of the same year. Dr. Jenner inoculated James with matter from a small pox pustule. During the next two weeks, the doctor watched for signs of small pox. They did not develop. The vaccination was successful. Dr. Jenner wrote a paper explaining his method of vaccination. At first the doctors were hostile and would not listen to a ridiculous procedure. In many towns people organized anti-vaccination campaigns. Gradually, however, the doctors and their patients accepted vaccination.
Dr. Jenner was successful as cowpox virus produces